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Table 7 Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and recreational walking/cycling

From: Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Walkability 78, 83, 85   82, 82, 82 1 , 82 2 , 86 5 3/8 38 0
Residential density    34, 34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Land use mix diversity 34   34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Street connectivity   85 34, 34 2 N/A N/A N/A
Access to shops/services/work    34, 34, 63, 85 3 0/4 0 0
Access to public transport    34, 34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Access to recreation facilities 92, 92, 92 52, 52, 52 34, 34, 40 M, 40 M, 40 M, 40 M, 40 F, 40 F, 40 F, 40 F, 52, 85, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92 5 3/35 9 00
Walking/cycling facilities 34   34, 34, 34, 85, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Safety 63   85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Traffic-related safety 40 M, 40 F, 41 M, 41 F   34, 34, 85 4 4/7 57 +
Crime-related safety    34, 34, 40 M, 40 F, 63, 85 4 0/6 0 00
Aesthetics 63   34, 34, 63, 63, 85 3 1/6 17 0
Urbanization 84   84, 84, 84 1 N/A N/A N/A
  1. * A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C = % of evidence; D = summary code.
  2. Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.
  3. M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females; 1 = specific results for 1st subgroup; 2 = specific results for 2nd subgroup.