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Table 1 Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Participants in the Singapore Indian Eye Study

From: Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

   English proficiency P value*
  All participants (n = 3174) English-speaking (n = 2289) Tamil-speaking (n = 885)  
Age groups     
  40-49 years 866 (27.3) 750 (32.8) 116 (13.1)  
  50-59 years 1036 (32.6) 818 (35.7) 218 (24.6)  
  60-69 years 820 (25.8) 528 (23.1) 292 (33.0)  
  70-80 years 452 (14.2) 193 (8.4) 259 (29.3) <0.001
Gender (male) 1612 (50.8) 1300 (56.8) 312 (35.3) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.1 (4.7) 26.0 (4.4) 26.4 (5.4) <0.001
HbA1c (%) 6.4 (1.4) 6.4 (1.4) 6.6 (1.4) 0.002
SBP (mmHg) 134.9 (19.6) 132.9 (18.6) 140.2 (20.9) <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 77.4 (10.1) 77.8 (10.1) 76.4 (10.1) 0.003
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.2 (1.1) 5.2 (1.1) 5.1 (1.1) <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.07 (0.32) 1.10 (0.32) 1.12 (0.31) <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.33 (0.94) 3.36 (0.94) 3.23 (0.92) 0.003
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.96 (1.16) 2.01 (1.23) 1.83 (0.94) <0.001
Current smoking (yes) 462 (14.6) 369 (16.1) 93 (10.5) <0.001
Country of birth     
  Foreign-born 1280 (40.3) 784 (34.3) 496 (56.0)  
  Singapore-born 1894 (59.7) 1505 (65.8) 389 (44.0) <0.001
Literacy level     
  Adequate reading literacy 2941 (92.7) 2211 (96.6) 730 (82.5)  
  Inadequate reading literacy 233 (7.3) 78 (3.4) 155 (17.5) 0.001
Education level     
  Primary education or lower 1688 (53.3) 934 (40.9) 754 (85.2)  
  Secondary education or higher 1482 (46.7) 1351 (59.1) 131 (14.8) <0.001
Income level     
  <S$1000 1538 (48.5) 881 (38.5) 657 (74.2)  
  ≥S$1000 1636 (51.5) 1408 (61.5) 228 (25.8) <0.001
Housing type     
  3-4 room flat or smaller 1996 (63.0) 1288 (56.3) 708 (80.0)  
  5 room flat/private 1175 (37.0) 998 (43.7) 177 (20.0) <0.001
  1. Data presented are means (standard deviations) or number (%), as appropriate for variable. BMI = Body mass index; HbA1C = hemoglobin A1C; SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; S = Singapore dollar.
  2. *P value, comparing the differences between English- and Tamil-speaking Indians, based on analysis of variance or chi-square test, as appropriate.