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Table 2 Description of the articles included in the review (n = 23; 1988 to 2009)

From: A literature review of the disruptive effects of user fee exemption policies on health systems

Authors and date Date Topic Qualitative Quantitative randomized controlled Quantitative non-randomized Quantitative descriptive Mixed methods
Ghana (n = 4)
Penfold et al. 2007 Service utilization    X   
Witter & Adjei 2007 Implementation X     
Witter, Arhinful, et al. 2007 Implementation X     
Witter, Kusi, et al. 2007 Effect of exemption on health workers     X  
Kenya (n = 4)
Chuma et al. 2009 Facilites' adherence to exemption      X
Mwabu et al. 1997 Service demand    X   
Mwabu et al. 1995 Service demand, and effect on income and quality    X   
Perkins et al. 2009 Costs of service utilization    X   
Madagascar (n = 1)
Fafchamps et al. 2007 Impact of 3 political periods on the health sector      X
South Africa (n = 4)
Bhayat et al. 2003 Service utilization    X   
Walker et al. 2004 Implementation      X
Wilkinson et al. 2001 Service utilization    X   
Wilkinson et al. 1997 Service utilization    X   
Senegal (n = 1)
Witter et al. 2008 Exemption processes and effects      X
Tanzania (n = 1)
Kruk et al. 2008 Costs of utilization    X   
Uganda (n = 8)
Burnham et al. 2004 Service utilization    X   
Deiniger et al. 2004 Effect of exemption on accessibility and illness    X   
Kajula et al. 2004 Political analysis of exemption X     
Nabyonga et al. 2005 Service utilization      X
Nabyonga-Orem et al. 2008 Quality of services      X
Pariyo et al. 2009 Service utilization    X   
Xu et al. 2006 Service utilization and catastrophic expenses    X   
Yates et al. 2006 Effects of exemption     X  
TOTAL 3 0 12 2 6