McPherson K, Marsh T, Brown M: Tackling Obesities: future choices-modelling future trends in obesity and the impact on health. Foresight: The J of Futures Studies, Strategic Thinking and Policy. 2007
National Obesity Observatory: Data Briefing: Adult Weight. 2010, Oxford, England: National Obesity Observatory
Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Sullivan L, Parise H, Kannel WB: Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch Intern Med. 2002, 162 (16): 1867-10.1001/archinte.162.16.1867.
Wellman NS, Friedberg B: Causes and consequences of adult obesity: health, social and economic impacts in the United States. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002, 11 (S8): s705-709. 10.1046/j.1440-6047.11.s8.6.x.
Must A, Strauss RS: Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999, 23: s2-11.
Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS: Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003, 289 (1): 76-9. 10.1001/jama.289.1.76.
Veer P, Kampman E: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. 2007, Washington, DC: World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research
Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ: Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of US adults. N England J Med. 2003, 348 (17): 1625-38. 10.1056/NEJMoa021423.
Møller H, Mellemgaard A, Lindvig K, Olsen JH: Obesity and cancer risk: a Danish record-linkage study. Eur J Cancer. 1994, 30 (3): 344-50. 10.1016/0959-8049(94)90254-2.
Suk SH, Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, Cheun JF, Pittman JG, Elkind MS, Paik MC, Northern Manhattan Stroke Study: Abdominal obesity and risk of ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Stroke. 2003, 34 (7): 1586-92. 10.1161/01.STR.0000075294.98582.2F.
Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, Lyketsos CG, Eaton WW: Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2003, 158 (12): 1139-47. 10.1093/aje/kwg275.
Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, Gail MH: Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA. 2005, 293 (15): 1861-7. 10.1001/jama.293.15.1861.
Gunnell DJ, Frankel SJ, Nanchahal K, Peters TJ, Davey Smith G: Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular mortality: a 57-y follow-up study based on the Boyd Orr cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998, 67 (6): 1111-8.
Mackenbach JP, Stirbu I, Roskam A-R, Schaap MM, Menvielle G, Leinsalu M, Kunst AE, European Union Working Group on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. New England J Med. 2008, 358 (23): 2468-10.1056/NEJMsa0707519.
Marmot MG, Smith GD, Stansfield S, Patel C, North F, Head J, White I, Brunner E, Feeney A: Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Lancet. 1991, 337 (8754): 1387-93. 10.1016/0140-6736(91)93068-K.
Fair Society, Health Lives: Strategic Review of the Health Inequalities in England post-2010. 2010, London: The Marmot Review
Mackenbach JP, Bos V, Andersen O, Cardano M, Costa G, Harding S, Reid A, Hemstrom O, Valkonen T, Kunst AE: Widening socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in six Western European countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2003, 32 (5): 830-7. 10.1093/ije/dyg209.
Brunner E, Shipley MJ, Blane D, Smith GD, Marmot MG: When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999, 53 (12): 757-64. 10.1136/jech.53.12.757.
Ferrie JE, Head J, Shipley MJ, Vahtera J, Marmot MG, Kivimaki M: BMI, obesity, and sickness absence in the Whitehall II study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007, 15 (6): 1554-64. 10.1038/oby.2007.184.
Hardy R, Wadsworth M, Kuh D: The influence of childhood weight and socioeconomic status on change in adult body mass index in a British national birth cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000, 24 (6): 725-734. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801238.
Hart C, McConnachie A, Upton M, Watt G: Risk factors in the Midspan family study by social class in childhood and adulthood. Int J Epidemiol. 2008, 37 (3): 604-614. 10.1093/ije/dyn052.
Kuh D, Hardy R, Chaturvedi N, Wadsworth ME: Birth weight, childhood growth and abdominal obesity in adult life. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002, 26 (1): 40-47. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801861.
Ball K, Crawford D: Socioeconomic status and weight change in adults: a review. Soc Sci Med. 2005, 60: 1987-2010. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.08.056.
McLaren L: Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiol Rev. 2007, 29: 29-48. 10.1093/epirev/mxm001.
Balakrishnan R, Webster P, Sinclair D: Trends in overweight and obesity among 5-7-year-old White and South Asian children born between 1991 and 1999. J Public Health (Oxf). 2008, 30 (2): 139-144. 10.1093/pubmed/fdn013.
Jebb SA, Rennie KL, Cole TJ: Prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in Great Britain. Public Health Nutr. 2004, 7 (3): 461-465.
Duran-Tauleria E, Rona RJ, Chinn S: Factors associated with weight for height and skinfold thickness in British children. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1995, 49 (5): 466-473. 10.1136/jech.49.5.466.
Rona RJ, Chinn S: National Study of Health and Growth: social and biological factors associated with weight-for-height and triceps skinfold of children from ethnic groups in England. Ann Hum Biol. 1987, 14 (3): 231-248. 10.1080/03014468700009001.
Chinn S, Hughes JM, Rona RJ: Trends in growth and obesity in ethnic groups in Britain. Arch Dis Child. 1998, 78 (6): 513-517. 10.1136/adc.78.6.513.
Blane D, Hart CL, Smith GD, Gillis CR, Hole DJ, Hawthorne VM: Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood. BMJ. 1996, 313 (7070): 1434-1438. 10.1136/bmj.313.7070.1434.
Heraclides A, Witte D, Brunner EJ: The association between father's social class and adult obesity is not explained by educational attainment and an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008, 23 (8): 573-579. 10.1007/s10654-008-9245-3.
Langenberg C, Hardy R, Kuh D, Brunner E, Wadsworth M: Central and total obesity in middle aged men and women in relation to lifetime socioeconomic status: evidence from a national birth cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003, 57 (10): 816-822. 10.1136/jech.57.10.816.
Lawlor DA, Batty GD, Morton SM, Clark H, Macintyre S, Leon DA: Childhood socioeconomic position, educational attainment, and adult cardiovascular risk factors: the Aberdeen children of the 1950s cohort study. Am J Public Health. 2005, 95 (7): 1245-1251. 10.2105/AJPH.2004.041129.
Okasha M, McCarron P, McEwen J, Durnin J, Davey Smith G: Childhood social class and adulthood obesity: findings from the Glasgow Alumni Cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003, 57 (7): 508-509. 10.1136/jech.57.7.508.
Pierce MB, Leon DA: Age at menarche and adult BMI in the Aberdeen children of the 1950s cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005, 82 (4): 733-739.
Power C, Hertzman C, Matthews S, Manor O: Social differences in health: life-cycle effects between ages 23 and 33 in the 1958 British birth cohort. Am J Public Health. 1997, 87 (9): 1499-1503. 10.2105/AJPH.87.9.1499.
Power C, Moynihan C: Social class and changes in weight-for-height between childhood and early adulthood. Int J Obes. 1988, 12 (5): 445-453.
Power C, Manor O, Matthews S: Child to adult socioeconomic conditions and obesity in a national cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003, 27 (9): 1081-1086. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802323.
Power C, Graham H, Due P, Hallqvist J, Joung I, Kuh D, Lynch J: The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behaviour: an international comparison. Int J Epidemiol. 2005, 34 (2): 335-344. 10.1093/ije/dyh394.
Power C, Atherton K, Strachan DP, Shepherd P, Fuller E, Davis A, Gibb I, Kumari M, Lowe G, MacFarlane GJ, Rahi J, Rodgers B, Stansfield S: Life-course influences on health in British adults: effects of socio-economic position in childhood and adulthood. Int J Epidemiol. 2007, 36 (3): 532-539. 10.1093/ije/dyl310.
Wannamethee SG, Whincup PH, Shaper G, Walker M: Influence of fathers' social class on cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men. Lancet. 1996, 348 (9037): 1259-1263. 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)02465-8.
Martikainen PT, Marmot MG: Socioeconomic differences in weight gain and determinants and consequences of coronary risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999, 69 (4): 719-726.
Townsend P: Health and deprivation. Inequality and the North. "Classic Texts in Health Care". Edited by: Soothill K, Mackay L, Malia L. 1997, Oxford: Reed Educational and Professional Publishing, Ltd
Lyratzopoulos G, McElduff P, Heller RF, Hanily M, Lewis PS: Mid-term Body Mass Index increase among obese and non-obese individuals in middle life and deprivation status: a cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2005, 5: 32-10.1186/1471-2458-5-32.
Power C, Hertzman C: Social and biological pathways linking early life and adult disease. Br Med Bull. 1997, 53 (1): 210-221.
Baker IA, Sweetnam PM, Yarnell JW, Bainton D, Elwood PC: Haemostatic and other risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and social class: evidence from the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies. Int J Epidemiol. 1988, 17 (4): 759-765. 10.1093/ije/17.4.759.
Bhopal R, Hayes L, White M, Unwin N, Harland J, Ayis S, Alberti G: Ethnic and socio-economic inequalities in coronary heart disease, diabetes and risk factors in Europeans and South Asians. J Public Health Med. 2002, 24 (2): 95-105. 10.1093/pubmed/24.2.95.
Brunner EJ, Marmot MG, Nanchahal K, Shipley MJ, Stansfeld SA, Juneja M, Alberti KG: Social inequality in coronary risk: central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study. Diabetologia. 1997, 40 (11): 1341-1349. 10.1007/s001250050830.
Ellaway A, Anderson A, Macintyre S: Does area of residence affect body size and shape?. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997, 21 (4): 304-308. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0800405.
Fehily AM, Phillips KM, Yarnell JW: Diet, smoking, social class, and body mass index in the Caerphilly Heart Disease Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984, 40 (4): 827-833.
Gulliford MC, Rona RJ, Chinn S: Trends in body mass index in young adults in England and Scotland from 1973 to 1988. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1992, 46 (3): 187-190. 10.1136/jech.46.3.187.
Parkes KR: Demographic and lifestyle predictors of body mass index among offshore oil industry workers: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Occup Med (Lond). 2003, 53 (3): 213-221. 10.1093/occmed/kqg037.
Power C, Atherton K, Manor O: Co-occurrence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by social class: 1958 British birth cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008, 62 (12): 1030-1035. 10.1136/jech.2007.068817.
Rona RJ, Morris RW: National study of health and growth: social and family factors and overweight in English and Scottish parents. Ann Hum Biol. 1982, 9 (2): 147-156. 10.1080/03014468200005611.
Scarborough P, Allender S: The North-south gap in overweight and obesity in England. Br J Nutr. 2008, 100 (3): 677-684.
Moon G, Quarendon G, Barnard S, Twigg L, Blyth B: Fat nation: deciphering the distinctive geographies of obesity in England. Soc Sci Med. 2007, 65 (1): 20-31. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.02.046.
Wardle J, Waller J, Jarvis MJ: Sex differences in the association of socioeconomic status with obesity. Am J Public Health. 2002, 92 (8): 1299-1304. 10.2105/AJPH.92.8.1299.
Weatherall R, Shaper AG: Overweight and obesity in middle-aged British men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988, 42 (3): 221-231.
Riva M, Curtis S, Gauvin L, Fagg J: Unravelling the extent of inequalities in health across urban and rural areas: evidence from a national sample in England. Soc Sci Med. 2009, 68 (4): 654-663. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.11.024.
Sobal J, Stunkard AJ: Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychol Bull. 1989, 105 (2): 260-275.
Link BG, Phelan J: Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. J Health Soc Behav. 1995, 80-94.
British Heart Foundation: Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease Statistics 2010. 2010, Available at: http://www.bhf.org.uk/publications/publications-search-results.aspx?m=simple&q=mortality
Galesic M, Garcia-Retamero R: Statistical numeracy for health; A cross-cultural comparison with probabilistic national samples. Arch Intern Med. 2010, 170 (5): 462-468. 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.481.
Nelson M, Erens B, Bates B, Church S, Boshier T: Low income diet and nutrition survey: London: TSO. 2007, 3:
Ali SM, Lindstrom M: Socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural, and psychological determinants of BMI among young women: differing patterns for underweight and overweight/obesity. Eur J Public Health. 2006, 16 (3): 324-330. 10.1093/eurpub/cki187.
Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J: Guide to measuring food insecurity, revised 2000. United States Department of Agriculture Report. 2000, [http://www.fns.usda.gov/FSEC/FILES/FSGuide.pdf]
Dietz WH: Does hunger cause obesity?. Pediatrics. 1995, 95: 766-767.
Adams EJ, Grummer-Strawn L, Chavez G: Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of obesity in California women. J Nutr. 2003, 133: 1070-1704.
Black JL, Macingko J: Neighborhoods and obesity. Nutr Rev. 2008, 66 (1): 2-20. 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00001.x.
Poortinga W: Perceptions of the environment, physical activity, and obesity. Soc Sci Med. 2006, 63: 2835-2846. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.018.
Zweiniger-Bargielowska I: Austerity in Britain: rationing, controls, and consumption. 2002, New York: Oxford University Press, 1939-1955.
Huang JS, Lee TA, Lu MC: Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. Matern Child Health J. 2007, 11 (5): 461-473. 10.1007/s10995-006-0141-8.
Breier BH, Vickers MH, Ikenasio BA, Chan KY, Wong WP: Fetal programming of appetite and obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001, 185 (1-2): 73-79. 10.1016/S0303-7207(01)00634-7.
Ravelli AC, van Der Meulen JH, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Bleker OP: Obesity at age of 50 y in men and women exposed to famin prenatally. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999, 70 (5): 811-816.
Chevalier A: Education, Occupation and Career Expectations: Determinants of the Gender Pay Gap for UK Graduates*. Oxford Bull Econ Stat. 2007, 69 (6): 819-842. 10.1111/j.1468-0084.2007.00483.x.
Blackaby DH, Leslie DG, Murphy PD, O'Leary NC: The ethnic wage gap and employment differentials in the 1990s: evidence for Britain. Econ Lett. 1998, 58 (1): 97-103. 10.1016/S0165-1765(97)00274-7.
Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE: Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annu Rev Public Health. 1997, 18 (1): 341-378. 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.18.1.341.
Stevenson THC: The vital statistics of wealth and poverty. J Royal Stat Soc. 1928, 91 (2): 207-230. 10.2307/2341530.
Marmot MG, McDowall ME: Mortality decline and widening social inequalities. Lancet. 1986, 328 (8501): 274-276. 10.1016/S0140-6736(86)92085-4.
Green MJ, Benzeval M: Social class differences in anxiety and depression across the life-course: evidence from three cohorts in the west of Scotland. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009, 63 (suppl 2): 19-10.1136/jech.2009.096701s.
Pugh H, Moser K: Measuring women's mortality differences. Women's Health Counts London Routledge. Edited by: Roberts H. 1990, 93-112.
Diez-Roux AV: Multilevel analysis in public health research. Annu Rev Public Health. 2000, 21: 171-192. 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.21.1.171.
Blalock HM: Contextual-effects models: theoretical and methodological issues. Annu Rev Sociol. 1984, 10 (1): 353-372. 10.1146/annurev.so.10.080184.002033.
DiPrete TA, Forristal JD: Multilevel models: methods and substance. Annu Rev Sociol. 1994, 20 (1): 331-357. 10.1146/annurev.so.20.080194.001555.
Hox JJ, Kreft IGG: Multilevel analysis methods. Sociol Meth Res. 1994, 22 (3): 283-299. 10.1177/0049124194022003001.
Galea S, Hall C, Kaplan GA: Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research. Int J Drug Policy. 2009, 20 (3): 209-216. 10.1016/j.drugpo.2008.08.005.
Baker EA, Metzler MM, Galea S: Addressing social determinants of health inequities: learning from doing. Am J Public Health. 2005, 95 (4): 553-555. 10.2105/AJPH.2005.061812.
National Child Development Study. 2010, Available at: http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/studies.asp?section=000100020003 Accessed 10 May, 2010.
Social Focus In Brief: Ethnicity, 2002. Office for National Statistics. 2002, Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/ethnicity/social-focus-in-brief--ethnicity/full-report/index.html.Accessed 13 January, 2012.
Fitzpatrick J, Jacobson B, Aspinall P: Ethnicity and Health: Executive Summary. 2007, Association of Public Health Observatories
Bhattacharyya G, Ison L, Blair M: Minority ethnic attainment and participation in education and training: the evidence. 2003, RTP01-03, Nottingham: Department for Education and Skills
Department of Health, Healthcare Commission: Report on the self reported experience of patients from black and minority ethnic groups. 2009, London: Office of National Statistics
Falagas ME, Pitsouni EI, Malietzis GA, Pappas G: Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses. Faseb J. 2008, 22: 338-342.
Viner TJ: Adult socioeconomic, educational, social, and psychological outcomes of childhood obesity: a national birth cohort study. BMJ. 2005, 330 (7504): 1354-10.1136/bmj.38453.422049.E0.
Wardle J, Boniface D: Changes in the distributions of body mass index and waist circumference in English adults, 1993/1994 to 2002/2003. Int J Obes. 2008, 32: 527-532. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803740.