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  1. The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) uses the public health system and the commercial sector to deliver subsidised insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to pregnant women. The system began operation in Octobe...

    Authors: Kara Hanson, Rose Nathan, Tanya Marchant, Hadji Mponda, Caroline Jones, Jane Bruce, Godlove Stephen, Jo Mulligan, Hassan Mshinda and Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:205
  2. Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, espec...

    Authors: Oanh TH Trinh, Nguyen D Nguyen, Michael J Dibley, Philayrath Phongsavan and Adrian E Bauman
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:204
  3. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is its primary cause, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung tissue that lead to lung cancer and im...

    Authors: Maria Teresa Landi, Dario Consonni, Melissa Rotunno, Andrew W Bergen, Alisa M Goldstein, Jay H Lubin, Lynn Goldin, Michael Alavanja, Glen Morgan, Amy F Subar, Ilona Linnoila, Fabrizio Previdi, Massimo Corno, Maurizia Rubagotti, Barbara Marinelli, Benedetta Albetti…
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:203
  4. There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive ...

    Authors: Darci N Santos, Ana Marlúcia O Assis, Ana Cecília S Bastos, Letícia M Santos, Carlos Antonio ST Santos, Agostino Strina, Matildes S Prado, Naomar M Almeida-Filho, Laura C Rodrigues and Mauricio L Barreto
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:202
  5. Obesity has been recognised as an important contributing factor in the development of various diseases, but comparative data on this condition are limited. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current ep...

    Authors: Anne Berghöfer, Tobias Pischon, Thomas Reinhold, Caroline M Apovian, Arya M Sharma and Stefan N Willich
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:200
  6. Betel quid is the fourth most common used substance in the world after tobacco, alcohol and caffeine. Although factors related to betel quid chewing or cessation of behaviors were reported previously, few stud...

    Authors: Shue-Fang Yap, Pei-Shan Ho, Hsiao-Ching Kuo and Yi-Hsin Yang
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:199
  7. Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic ...

    Authors: Robert F Anda, David W Brown, Vincent J Felitti, Shanta R Dube and Wayne H Giles
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:198
  8. Low birthweight is a widely used indicator of newborn health. This study investigates the association of birthweight <2.5 kg (LBW) with a wide range of factors related to geo-demographics, maternal health and ...

    Authors: Sareer Badshah, Linda Mason, Kenneth McKelvie, Roger Payne and Paulo JG Lisboa
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:197
  9. From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination su...

    Authors: Bärbel-Maria Kurth, Panagiotis Kamtsiuris, Heike Hölling, Martin Schlaud, Rüdiger Dölle, Ute Ellert, Heidrun Kahl, Hiltraud Knopf, Michael Lange, Gert BM Mensink, Hannelore Neuhauser, Angelika Schaffrath Rosario, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Liane Schenk, Robert Schlack, Heribert Stolzenberg…
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:196
  10. A storm-related disaster in New South Wales, Australia in June 2007 caused infrastructure damage, interrupted essential services, and presented major public health risks. We investigated household disaster pre...

    Authors: Michelle Cretikos, Keith Eastwood, Craig Dalton, Tony Merritt, Frank Tuyl, Linda Winn and David Durrheim
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:195
  11. With a view to developing health systems strategies to improve reach to high-risk groups, we present information on health and survival from household and health facility perspectives in five districts of sout...

    Authors: Joanna RM Armstrong Schellenberg, Mwifadhi Mrisho, Fatuma Manzi, Kizito Shirima, Conrad Mbuya, Adiel K Mushi, Sosthenes Charles Ketende, Pedro L Alonso, Hassan Mshinda, Marcel Tanner and David Schellenberg
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:194
  12. As a result of metabolic syndrome becoming an important issue during recent decades, many studies have explored the risk factors contributing to its development. However, less attention has been paid to the ri...

    Authors: Pei-Chia Chang, Tsai-Chung Li, Ming-Tsang Wu, Chiu-Shong Liu, Chia-Ing Li, Ching-Chu Chen, Wen-Yuan Lin, Shin-Yuh Yang and Cheng-Chieh Lin
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:193
  13. Healthcare workers (HCWs) will be key players in any response to pandemic influenza, and will be in the front line of exposure to infection. Responding effectively to a pandemic relies on the majority of medic...

    Authors: Heather Draper, Sue Wilson, Jonathan Ives, Christine Gratus, Sheila Greenfield, Jayne Parry, Judith Petts and Tom Sorell
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:192
  14. The international migration of physicians is a global public health problem. Lebanon is a source country with the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa and the 7th highest in the World....

    Authors: Elie A Akl, Nancy Maroun, Stella Major, Claude Afif, Abir Abdo, Jacques Choucair, Mazen Sakr, Carl K Li, Brydon JB Grant and Holger J Schünemann
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:191
  15. Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Limited data exist regarding the extent of the problem among Cyprus youth. We use the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to asses...

    Authors: Costas A Christophi, Ourania Kolokotroni, Hillel R Alpert, Charles W Warren, Nathan R Jones, Philip Demokritou and Gregory N Connolly
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:190
  16. The widespread use of relative scales in socioepidemiological studies has recently been criticized. The criticism is based mainly on the fact that the importance of different risk factors in explaining social ...

    Authors: Maria Rosvall, Gunnar Engström, Göran Berglund and Bo Hedblad
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:189
  17. To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States.

    Authors: Sara E Benjamin, Angie Cradock, Elizabeth M Walker, Meghan Slining and Matthew W Gillman
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:188
  18. The present study assessed microbial contamination in Italian dental surgeries.

    Authors: Paolo Castiglia, Giorgio Liguori, Maria Teresa Montagna, Christian Napoli, Cesira Pasquarella, Margherita Bergomi, Leila Fabiani, Silvano Monarca and Stefano Petti
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:187
  19. Regarding demographic changes in Germany it can be assumed that the number of elderly and the resulting need for long term care is increasing in the near future. It is not only an individual's interest but als...

    Authors: Steffen Fleischer, Gudrun Roling, Katrin Beutner, Stephanie Hanns, Johann Behrens, Tobias Luck, Bettina Kuske, Matthias C Angermeyer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Sven Heinrich, Hans-H König and Christine Lautenschläger
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:185
  20. Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC) adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this ...

    Authors: Diane Bélanger, Pierre Gosselin, Pierre Valois and Belkacem Abdous
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:184
  21. Among Western countries, it has been found that physicians tend to manage their own illnesses and tend not have their own independent family physicians. This is recognized as a significant issue for both physi...

    Authors: Julie Y Chen, Eileen YY Tse, Tai Pong Lam, Donald KT Li, David VK Chao and Chi Wai Kwan
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:183
  22. Physical activity studies in older people experience poor recruitment. We wished to assess the influence of activity levels and health status on recruitment to a physical activity study in older people.

    Authors: Tess J Harris, Christina R Victor, Iain M Carey, Rika Adams and Derek G Cook
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:182
  23. The broad aim of this study was to assess the contribution of job strain to mental health inequalities by (a) estimating the proportion of depression attributable to job strain (low control and high demand job...

    Authors: Anthony D LaMontagne, Tessa Keegel, Deborah Vallance, Aleck Ostry and Rory Wolfe
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:181
  24. As other countries, Switzerland experiences a high or even rising incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM). An outpatient clinic for gay men ("Checkpoint") ...

    Authors: David LB Schwappach and Philip Bruggmann
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:180
  25. Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures...

    Authors: Tamara Schikowski, Dorothee Sugiri, Verena Reimann, Beate Pesch, Ulrich Ranft and Ursula Krämer
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:179
  26. With smoking increasingly confined to lower socio-economic groups, the tobacco control community has been urged to identify which population-level tobacco control interventions work in order to help tackle smo...

    Authors: Caroline Main, Sian Thomas, David Ogilvie, Lisa Stirk, Mark Petticrew, Margaret Whitehead and Amanda Sowden
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:178
  27. Early detection of smear positive TB cases by smear microscopy requires high level of suspicion of TB among primary care physicians. The objective of this study is to measure TB suspicion and knowledge among p...

    Authors: Abdullah A Al-Maniri, Omar A Al-Rawas, Fatmah Al-Ajmi, Ayesha De Costa, Bo Eriksson and Vinod K Diwan
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:177
  28. To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 y...

    Authors: Farzad Hadaegh, Mohammad Reza Bozorgmanesh, Asghar Ghasemi, Hadi Harati, Navid Saadat and Fereidoun Azizi
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:176
  29. We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition...

    Authors: Michelle Hackett, Hugo Melgar-Quinonez and Martha C Alvarez Uribe
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:175
  30. Counselling in routine general practice to promote physical activity (PA) is advocated, but inadequate evidence is available to support this intervention, and its sustainable implementation over time is diffic...

    Authors: Gonzalo Grandes, Alvaro Sánchez, Jesús Torcal, Ricardo Ortega Sánchez-Pinilla, Kepa Lizarraga and Javier Serra
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:172
  31. Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem and epidemiological studies are important to identify predictive factors. It is the aim of this study to analyse factors associated with overweight/obesity ...

    Authors: Christian J Apfelbacher, Adrian Loerbroks, John Cairns, Heidrun Behrendt, Johannes Ring and Ursula Krämer
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:171
  32. An inverse relationship between better socioeconomic status (total household income, education or occupation) and stroke has been established in developed communities, but family size has generally not been co...

    Authors: Fei Xu, Lap Ah Tse, XiaoMei Yin, Ignatius Tak-sun Yu and Sian Griffiths
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:170
  33. To assess the 18-month field effectiveness on severe events of a pediatric package combining early HIV-diagnosis and targeted cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected children from age six-week before the ant...

    Authors: Jérôme Harambat, Patricia Fassinou, Renaud Becquet, Pety Touré, François Rouet, François Dabis, Philippe Msellati, Stéphane Blanche, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Roger Salamon and Valériane Leroy
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:169
  34. Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing wo...

    Authors: Emma RM Cohen, Hassan Masum, Kathryn Berndtson, Vicki Saunders, Tom Hadfield, Dilzayn Panjwani, Deepa L Persad, Gunjeet S Minhas, Abdallah S Daar, Jerome A Singh and Peter A Singer
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:168
  35. Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, tre...

    Authors: Brett D Montgomery, Peter R Mansfield, Geoffrey K Spurling and Alison M Ward
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:167
  36. Height of individuals has long been considered as a significant index of nutrition and health of a population; still, there is little information regarding the trends of height and weight among developing or t...

    Authors: Pedro Marques-Vidal, George Madeleine, Sarah Romain, Anne Gabriel and Pascal Bovet
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:166
  37. Unexplained chest pain (UCP) is a common reason for emergency hospital admission and generates considerable health-care costs for society. Even though prior research indicates that psychological problems and i...

    Authors: Annika Janson Fagring, Karin I Kjellgren, Annika Rosengren, Lauren Lissner, Karin Manhem and Catharina Welin
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:165
  38. Unhealthy alcohol use amongst university students is a major public health concern. Although previous studies suggest a raised level of consumption amongst the UK student population there is little consistent ...

    Authors: Bridgette M Bewick, Brendan Mulhern, Michael Barkham, Karen Trusler, Andrew J Hill and William B Stiles
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:163
  39. Prescription of medicines by non-doctors is an issue with serious global implications. To our knowledge prescription of drugs by medical and non-medical students has not been studied before. We aimed to determ...

    Authors: Syed Nabeel Zafar, Reema Syed, Sana Waqar, Faria A Irani and Sarah Saleem
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:162
  40. Inadequate levels of immunization against childhood diseases remain a significant public health problem in resource-poor areas of the globe. Nonetheless, the reasons for incomplete vaccination and non-uptake o...

    Authors: Jagrati V Jani, Caroline De Schacht, Ilesh V Jani and Gunnar Bjune
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:161
  41. Population-based electronic immunization registries create the possibility of using registry data to conduct vaccine effectiveness studies which could have methodological advantages over traditional observatio...

    Authors: Barbara E Mahon, Kimberly M Shea, Nancy N Dougherty and Anita M Loughlin
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:160
  42. Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transit...

    Authors: Ieva Reine, Mehmed Novo and Anne Hammarström
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:159
  43. In the U.S. more than half of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases occur in immigrants. Current guidelines recommend screening and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) within 5 years of arrival to the U.S. Thi...

    Authors: Kathleen R Page, Yukari C Manabe, Akintoye Adelakun, Lynn Federline, Wendy Cronin, James D Campbell and Susan E Dorman
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:158
  44. Throughout Africa, the private retail sector has been recognised as an important source of antimalarial treatment, complementing formal health services. However, the quality of advice and treatment at private ...

    Authors: Manuel W Hetzel, Angel Dillip, Christian Lengeler, Brigit Obrist, June J Msechu, Ahmed M Makemba, Christopher Mshana, Alexander Schulze and Hassan Mshinda
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:157
  45. Young people in European countries are experiencing high levels of alcohol and drug use and escalating levels of sexually transmitted infections. Individually these represent major public health priorities. Un...

    Authors: Mark A Bellis, Karen Hughes, Amador Calafat, Montse Juan, Anna Ramon, José A Rodriguez, Fernando Mendes, Susanne Schnitzer and Penny Phillips-Howard
    Citation: BMC Public Health 2008 8:155

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