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Table 1 Descriptive statistic of the included variables by sex

From: Environmental and personal factors for osteoporosis or osteopenia from a large health check-up database: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan

  Total   Male    Female   
  Normal low BMD Normal low BMD Total Normal low BMD Total
Characteristics (N = 174,295) (N = 20,615) (N = 87,250) (N = 8530) (N = 95,780) (N = 87,045) (N = 12,085) (N = 99,130)
Age (years)
 Mean (SD) 40.0 (11.4) 53.7 (14.5) 40.5 (11.8) 48.2 (14.4) 41.2 (12.3) 39.4 (11.0) 57.6 (13.2) 41.6 (12.8)
Education
  < 9 yr 9257 (5.3%) 6465 (31.4%) 3362 (3.9%) 1087 (12.7%) 4449 (4.6%) 5895 (6.8%) 5378 (44.5%) 11,273 (11.4%)
 9 ~ 14 yr 36,814 (21.1%) 5550 (26.9%) 16,641 (19.1%) 2187 (25.6%) 18,828 (19.7%) 20,173 (23.2%) 3363 (27.8%) 23,536 (23.7%)
 14 ~ 16 yr 35,084 (20.1%) 2892 (14.0%) 17,033 (19.5%) 1711 (20.1%) 18,744 (19.6%) 18,051 (20.7%) 1181 (9.8%) 19,232 (19.4%)
 16 ~ 18 yr 64,336 (36.9%) 4016 (19.5%) 31,214 (35.8%) 2278 (26.7%) 33,492 (35.0%) 33,122 (38.1%) 1738 (14.4%) 34,860 (35.2%)
  >  = 18 yr 28,804 (16.5%) 1692 (8.2%) 19,000 (21.8%) 1267 (14.9%) 20,267 (21.2%) 9804 (11.3%) 425 (3.5%) 10,229 (10.3%)
Smoking status
 no, secondhand smoker 142,593 (81.8%) 17,471 (84.7%) 61,061 (70.0%) 5806 (68.1%) 66,867 (69.8%) 81,532 (93.7%) 11,665 (96.5%) 93,197 (94.0%)
 ever smoker and current smoker 31,702 (18.2%) 3144 (15.3%) 26,189 (30.0%) 2724 (31.9%) 28,913 (30.2%) 5513 (6.3%) 420 (3.5%) 5933 (6.0%)
Physical activity (intensity)
 light exercise 125,164 (71.8%) 16,965 (82.3%) 51,407 (58.9%) 6143 (72.0%) 57,550 (60.1%) 73,757 (84.7%) 10,822 (89.5%) 84,579 (85.3%)
 mean exercise 36,417 (20.9%) 2660 (12.9%) 25,823 (29.6%) 1651 (19.4%) 27,474 (28.7%) 10,594 (12.2%) 1009 (8.3%) 11,603 (11.7%)
 heavy or violent exercise 12,714 (7.3%) 990 (4.8%) 10,020 (11.5%) 736 (8.6%) 10,756 (11.2%) 2694 (3.1%) 254 (2.1%) 2948 (3.0%)
Sleep score
 Mean (SD) 6.97 (1.33) 6.68 (1.54) 7.14 (1.29) 6.99 (1.36) 7.13 (1.30) 6.79 (1.34) 6.47 (1.62) 6.75 (1.38)
Milk
 no; < 1 cup/wk 95,666 (54.9%) 11,364 (55.1%) 49,457 (56.7%) 5068 (59.4%) 54,525 (56.9%) 46,209 (53.1%) 6296 (52.1%) 52,505 (53.0%)
  >  = 1 cup/wk 78,629 (45.1%) 9251 (44.9%) 37,793 (43.3%) 3462 (40.6%) 41,255 (43.1%) 40,836 (46.9%) 5789 (47.9%) 46,625 (47.0%)
Dairy
 no; < 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk 100,280 (57.5%) 14,107 (68.4%) 51,295 (58.8%) 5642 (66.1%) 56,937 (59.4%) 48,985 (56.3%) 8465 (70.0%) 57,450 (58.0%)
  >  = 1 slice of yogurt or cheese/wk 74,015 (42.5%) 6508 (31.6%) 35,955 (41.2%) 2888 (33.9%) 38,843 (40.6%) 38,060 (43.7%) 3620 (30.0%) 41,680 (42.0%)
Vegetarian
 Yes 4193 (2.4%) 1153 (5.6%) 1547 (1.8%) 279 (3.3%) 1826 (1.9%) 2646 (3.0%) 874 (7.2%) 3520 (3.6%)
 No 170,102 (97.6%) 19,462 (94.4%) 85,703 (98.2%) 8251 (96.7%) 93,954 (98.1%) 84,399 (97.0%) 11,211 (92.8%) 95,610 (96.4%)
BMI
 normal 93,404 (53.6%) 12,064 (58.5%) 37,746 (43.3%) 4994 (58.5%) 42,740 (44.6%) 55,658 (63.9%) 7070 (58.5%) 62,728 (63.3%)
 underweight 12,154 (7.0%) 1899 (9.2%) 1760 (2.0%) 624 (7.3%) 2384 (2.5%) 10,394 (11.9%) 1275 (10.6%) 11,669 (11.8%)
 overweight 41,883 (24.0%) 4491 (21.8%) 29,052 (33.3%) 2032 (23.8%) 31,084 (32.5%) 12,831 (14.7%) 2459 (20.3%) 15,290 (15.4%)
 obesity 26,854 (15.4%) 2161 (10.5%) 18,692 (21.4%) 880 (10.3%) 19,572 (20.4%) 8162 (9.4%) 1281 (10.6%) 9443 (9.5%)
Waistline
 central obesity 28,355 (16.3%) 3668 (17.8%) 17,903 (20.5%) 1121 (13.1%) 19,024 (19.9%) 10,452 (12.0%) 2547 (21.1%) 12,999 (13.1%)
 normal 145,940 (83.7%) 16,947 (82.2%) 69,347 (79.5%) 7409 (86.9%) 76,756 (80.1%) 76,593 (88.0%) 9538 (78.9%) 86,131 (86.9%)
Triglyceride
  >  = 150 mg/dl 36,338 (20.8%) 5022 (24.4%) 27,111 (31.1%) 2366 (27.7%) 29,477 (30.8%) 9227 (10.6%) 2656 (22.0%) 11,883 (12.0%)
 normal 137,957 (79.2%) 15,593 (75.6%) 60,139 (68.9%) 6164 (72.3%) 66,303 (69.2%) 77,818 (89.4%) 9429 (78.0%) 87,247 (88.0%)
Uric acid
 hyperuricemia 43,642 (25.0%) 4579 (22.2%) 33,210 (38.1%) 2323 (27.2%) 35,533 (37.1%) 10,432 (12.0%) 2256 (18.7%) 12,688 (12.8%)
 normal 130,653 (75.0%) 16,036 (77.8%) 54,040 (61.9%) 6207 (72.8%) 60,247 (62.9%) 76,613 (88.0%) 9829 (81.3%) 86,442 (87.2%)
Walkability (park and elementary school; 1 km buffer)
 Mean (SD) 5.88 (6.90) 5.25 (6.54) 5.75 (6.81) 5.26 (6.64) 5.71 (6.79) 6.00 (6.99) 5.25 (6.47) 5.91 (6.93)
Solar radiation
 Mean (SD) 13.5 (1.64) 13.6 (1.63) 13.5 (1.64) 13.6 (1.61) 13.5 (1.64) 13.5 (1.65) 13.6 (1.64) 13.5 (1.65)