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Table 1 Analysed variables

From: An impact of economic slowdown on health. New evidence from 21 European countries

Variable Description Source Availability of data
Health state
 Life Expectancy (LE0, LE65) The mean number of years a newborn child (LE0)/a person at the age of 65 (LE65) can expect to live if subjected to the current mortality conditions, the probabilities of dying at each age Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990–2019
 Healthy life expectancy, or Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE0, HALE65) The number of years that a person at a given age (a newborn – LE0 and a person at the age of 65 – LE65) can expect to live in good health if the rates of all-cause mortality and all-cause disability in a specified year of interest would remain constant into the future Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation 1995–2019
 Infant Mortality (IM) The number of deaths under one year of age World Bank 1990–2019
 Suicide rate (SUICIDE) Suicide mortality rate is the number of suicide deaths yearly — crude suicide rate (not age-adjusted) OECD 1961–2019
Health system
 Current Health Expenditure (CHE) Level of current health expenditure include consumed healthcare goods and services World Bank 2000–2019
 Total Health Expenditure (THE) Health expenditure includes all expenditures for the provision of health services, family planning activities, nutrition activities and emergency aid designated for health, but it excludes the provision of drinking water and sanitation WHO Health for All 1995–2019
 Hospital Beds (BEDS) Total hospital beds include curative care beds, rehabilitative care beds, long-term care beds, and other beds in hospitals Eurostat (Health) 1990–2015
Macroeconomics
 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The measure of the value-added created through the production of goods and services in a country during a specific period. GDP PPP per capita European Health for All database WHO 1990–2018
 Total investment (TOT_INV) Investment or gross capital formation measured by the total value of the gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories and acquisitions less disposals of valuables for a unit or sector. Expressed as a ratio of total investment to GDP International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1990–2019
 Unemployment rate (UNEMP) The number of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of the unemployed plus those in paid or self-employment World Bank 1991–2019
 General Government Balance (GOV_BAL) Defined as the balance of income and expenditure of government, including capital income and capital expenditures Euro-stat 1995–2018
 SOC_BEN Social benefits to households covering social benefits other than social transfers in kind; and social transfers in kind OECD 1995–2015