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Table 5 Temporal associations between low health literacy (score < 4 on ‘Engagement’ scale) and health outcomes in injured participants, assessed over a 6-month period

From: Health literacy and recovery following a non-catastrophic road traffic injury

  Low Health Literacy (based on ‘Engagement’ scale)
Health Outcomes (each unit-increase)a β (95% CI) P value Effect size
SF-12 PCS −3.77 (−6.64, − 0.89) 0.01 0.36 SDs
SF-12 MCS −3.80 (−6.52, −1.07) 0.01 0.38 SDs
EQ-5D-3L summary score −0.078 (− 0.15, 0.007) 0.03 0.1 SDs
WHODAS score 9.44 (4.92, 13.95) < 0.0001 0.53 SDs
Pain severity ratings 0.71 (0.04, 1.37) 0.04 0.29 SDs
DASS-21 total score 7.37 (3.92, 10.82) < 0.0001 0.55 SDs
IESR total score 0.96 (0.34, 1.58) 0.003 0.34 SDs
Pain catastrophizing score 4.47 (1.25, 7.68) 0.01 0.36 SDs
  1. DASS-21 Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, EQ-5D-3L European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, IES-R Impact of Events Scale Revised, MCS Mental Component Summary Score, PCS Physical Component Summary Score, WHODAS WHO Disability Assessment Schedule
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, education, social satisfaction, remoteness, pre-injury factors (anxiety/depression, disability, comorbidities and employment), type of road user, injury severity scores, hospital admission, pain severity, perceived danger, psychological factors (DASS-21, IESR, catastrophizing) and third-party insurance claim status