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Table 3 Factors associated with low health literacy (HL) as assessed by scoring < 4 on the ‘Engagement’ scale

From: Health literacy and recovery following a non-catastrophic road traffic injury

Baseline factors Low HL
(n = 92)
High HL
(n = 401)
P value Subgroup
p value
Age, years
 17–24 18 (19.6) 62 (15.5) 0.61  
 25–44 38 (41.3) 146 (36.4)  
 45–59 22 (23.9) 112 (27.9)  
 60–69 8 (8.7) 44 (11.0)  
 70+ 6 (6.5) 37 (9.2)  
Male gender 48 (52.2) 268 (66.8) 0.01  
Marital status    0.92  
 Divorced, widowed or separated 13 (14.3) 59 (14.7)  
 Married or defacto 52 (57.1) 220 (54.9)  
 Never married 26 (28.6) 122 (30.4)   
Educational level    0.59  
 Primary or pre-primary 5 (5.4) 15 (3.7)  
 Secondary 32 (34.8) 121 (30.2)  
 Technical/other further education 23 (25.0) 98 (24.4)  
 Tertiary or university 32 (34.8) 167 (41.7)   
Pre-injury paid work or self-employment 62 (67.3) 303 (75.6) 0.11  
Injury severity score
 12+ 3 (3.3) 18 (4.5)   
 9–11 8 (8.7) 26 (6.5) 0.35  
 4–8 30 (32.6) 167 (41.7)   
 1–3 51 (55.4) 190 (47.4)   
Pre-injury disabilitya 45 (49.5) 116 (29) 0.0002  
Pre-injury comorbidity 56 (60.9) 216 (53.9) 0.22  
Lodging CTP claim 47 (51.1) 108 (26.9) < 0.0001  
Pain severity ratings 5.3 (2.6) 4.0 (2.6) < 0.0001  
Total DASS-21 score 21.5 (17.0) 9.9 (12.7) < 0.0001  
Total IES-R scores 5.3 (3.2) 3.0 (2.8) < 0.0001  
Pain catastrophizing Scale scores 21.3 (15.0) 11.3 (12.8) < 0.0001  
Hospital stay > 12 hours 49 (53.3) 226 (56.4) 0.59  
Perceived sense of danger/death    0.04  
 Overwhelming 16 (17.6) 30 (7.6) 0.003
 Great 18 (19.8) 72 (18.2) 0.7
 Moderate 18 (19.8) 80 (20.2) 0.9
 Small 17 (18.7) 90 (22.7) 0.4
 None 22 (24.2) 124 (31.3) 0.18
Pre-injury psychological conditions 37 (40.2) 96 (23.9) 0.002  
Type of road user
 Car driver 38 (41.3) 146 (36.6)   0.4
 Car passenger 13 (14.1) 36 (9.0) 0.01 0.14
 Motorbike 27 (29.4) 156 (39.1)   0.08
 Cyclist 3 (3.3) 40 (10.0)   0.04
 Pedestrian/skateboard 11 (12.0) 21 (5.3)   0.02
Social satisfaction
 Dissatisfied 3 (3.3) 4 (1.0)   
 Neither 7 (7.6) 17 (4.2) 0.10  
 Satisfied 82 (89.1) 380 (94.8)   
  1. CTP Compulsory Third-Party Insurance, DASS-21 Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, IES-R Impact of Events Scale Revised
  2. Data are presented as mean (SD) or n (%)
  3. aAs assessed by total European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) scores