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Table 1 Sample characteristics by frequency and strength of spicy food consumption

From: Association between spicy foods consumption and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

Frequency of spicy foods consumption
  Never(<1 days/wk.) Sometimes (1-2 days/wk.) Often (3-4 days/wk.) Usually (≥5 days/wk.) Total P value
Number 26,413 1728 1005 1179 30,325  
Women (%) 72.66 71.82 69.05 68.87 72.34 0.003
Age (y) 62.16 ± 7.16 60.78 ± 6.67 60.85 ± 6.50 61.91 ± 6.95 62.02 ± 7.12 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.67 ± 3.30 24.27 ± 3.32 24.48 ± 3.36 24.85 ± 3.33 23.77 ± 3.32 < 0.001
WHR 0.867 ± 0.068 0.867 ± 0.067 0.874 ± 0.066 0.878 ± 0.067 0.868 ± 0.068 < 0.001
Waist (cm) 78.56 ± 8.99 79.56 ± 8.87 80.26 ± 8.83 81.46 ± 9.14 78.79 ± 9.01 < 0.001
Education (%)       < 0.001
  ≤ Primary 44.35 32.89 33.07 34.44 42.94  
 Middle School 47.39 54.95 53.89 49.62 48.13  
  ≥ College or above 8.26 12.16 12.95 15.95 8.93  
Household income (Yuan/year)       < 0.001
  < 10,000 6.04 3.82 3.39 3.48 5.73  
 10,000-29,999 32.74 28.97 27.89 31.01 32.29  
 30,000-49,999 20.92 23.87 23.31 21.75 21.20  
  ≥ 50,000 16.14 22.54 21.41 22.85 16.94  
 Don’t know 24.15 20.80 24.00 20.90 23.83  
Smoking history (%)       < 0.001
 Never 81.21 79.88 76.52 75.45 80.76  
 Ex-smoker 9.14 7.77 10.15 11.13 9.17  
 Current smoker 9.65 12.35 13.33 13.42 10.07  
Drinking status (%)       < 0.001
 Never 74.22 58.49 60.64 60.65 72.35  
 Ex-drinker 3.45 4.10 4.90 3.58 3.54  
 Current drinker 22.33 37.41 34.47 35.78 24.11  
Occupation (%)       < 0.001
 Manual 62.30 55.67 51.85 51.28 61.15  
 Non-manual 22.79 29.01 29.17 33.22 23.76  
 Other 14.91 15.32 18.98 15.50 15.09  
Physical activities (%)       0.332
 Inactive 8.14 7.64 7.36 7.97 8.08  
 Minimally active 40.95 42.65 42.69 38.59 41.01  
 Active 50.91 49.71 49.95 53.44 50.91  
Daily energy intake(kcal/d)      < 0.001
 Median 1774.72 1863.36 1883.67 1864.07 1787.86  
 Interquartile range (1452.79,2131.63) (1495.88,2251.08) (1560.90,2279.51) (1473.05,2273.09) (1458.57,2151.64)  
Daily carbohydrate intake(kcal/d)      < 0.001
 Median 252.07 259.77 270.72 263.92 253.65  
 Interquartile range (199.21,310.50) (201.49, 325.29) (214.45, 327.98) (199.1, 329.61) (199.89,312.83)  
Daily protein intake(kcal/d)      < 0.001
 Median 69.08 73.86 72.76 71.77 69.63  
 Interquartile range (56.03,84.63) (59.63,89.04) (58.50,87.70) (57.74,89.75) (56.37,85.30)  
Daily fat intake(kcal/d)       < 0.001
 Median 55.12 59.23 60.17 58.85 55.69  
 Interquartile range (41.03,70.65) (44.74,74.93) (44.72,77.62) (43.55, 75.62) (41.45,71.34)  
Strength of spicy foods consumption
  Never Mild Moderate Strong Total P value
Number 26,413 2407 1121 380 30,321  
Women (%) 72.66 73.74 67.26 56.58 72.34 < 0.001
Age (y) 62.16 ± 7.16 61.39 ± 6.72 60.77 ± 6.66 60.50 ± 6.89 62.02 ± 7.12 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.67 ± 3.30 24.37 ± 3.29 24.66 ± 3.44 24.86 ± 3.35 23.77 ± 3.32 < 0.001
WHR 0.867 ± 0.068 0.872 ± 0.067 0.873 ± 0.067 0.881 ± 0.065 0.868 ± 0.068 < 0.001
WC (cm) 78.56 ± 8.99 79.98 ± 8.82 80.48 ± 9.08 81.92 ± 9.44 78.79 ± 9.01 < 0.001
Education (%)       < 0.001
  ≤ Primary 44.35 34.51 31.31 32.63 42.94  
 Middle School 47.39 52.06 54.24 56.32 48.13  
  ≥ College or above 8.26 13.43 14.45 11.05 8.93  
Household income (Yuan/year)      < 0.001
  < 10,000 6.04 3.95 3.13 2.63 5.73  
 10,000-29,999 32.74 29.52 28.71 29.74 32.30  
 30,000-49,999 20.92 22.49 25.31 20.53 21.21  
  ≥ 50,000 16.14 22.16 22.09 24.47 16.95  
 Don’t know 24.15 21.87 20.75 22.63 23.83  
Smoking history (%)       < 0.001
 Never 81.22 80.95 75.56 62.96 80.76  
 Ex-smoker 9.14 9.23 9.10 11.38 9.17  
 Current smoker 9.65 9.82 15.34 25.66 10.07  
Drinking status (%)       < 0.001
 Never 74.22 62.29 56.74 51.59 72.35  
 Ex-drinker 3.45 3.89 4.32 5.29 3.54  
 Current drinker 22.33 33.82 38.94 43.12 24.11  
Occupation (%)       < 0.001
 Manual 62.30 54.02 52.10 52.65 61.14  
 Non-manual 22.79 28.96 32.05 33.86 23.76  
 Other 14.91 17.02 15.85 13.49 15.09  
Physical activities (%)       0.504
 Inactive 8.14 7.81 6.96 8.95 8.08  
 Minimally active 40.95 40.47 43.53 41.58 41.01  
 Active 50.91 51.72 49.51 49.47 50.90  
Daily energy intake(kcal/d)       < 0.001
 Median 1774.72 1883.46 1815.78 1911.14 1787.86  
 Interquartile range (1452.79,2131.63) (1538.36,2268.63) (1452.68,2223.51) (1521.69,2315.07) (1458.58,2151.63)  
Daily carbohydrate intake(kcal/d)       < 0.001
 Median 252.07 270.05 252.51 265.72 253.65  
 Interquartile range (199.21,310.50) (208.29, 330.34) (191.81, 318.42) (201.28, 333.47) (199.89,312.83)  
Daily protein intake(kcal/d)       < 0.001
 Median 69.08 73.06 72.65 74.25 69.63  
 Interquartile range (56.03,84.63) (58.92,88.05) (57.39, 88.73) (58.51,94.48) (56.37,85.30)  
Daily fat intake(kcal/d)       < 0.001
 Median 55.12 59.23 58.83 60.77 55.69  
 Interquartile range (41.03,70.65) (44.48, 76.43) (44.79,73.44) (47.78,77.36) (41.45,71.34)  
  1. Data were expressed as means ± SDs or medians (IQRs) for continuous variables and percentages (%) for categorical variables