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Table 3 Effects of exposure to glyphosate on oxidative stress and inflammation after glyphosate application (N = 180)

From: Effects of exposure to glyphosate on oxidative stress, inflammation, and lung function in maize farmers, Northern Thailand

Factors Increased MDA Decreased GHS Increased CRP
β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Age (years) -0.002 -0.004, -0.000* 0.001 -0.001, 0.001 -0.002 -0.011, 0.007
Gender (male vs female (ref.)) -0.017 -0.061, 0.027 0.002 -0.026, 0.030 0.105 -0.111, 0.320
Education (primary school vs secondary school or higher (ref.)) 0.017 -0.011, 0.045 -0.008 -0.026, 0.010 0.167 0.030, 0.305*
BMI (kg/m2) -0.004 -0.007, -0.001* 0.000 -0.002, 0.002 0.024 0.008, 0.040**
Smoking status (yes vs no (ref.)) 0.015 -0.023, 0.053 0.002 -0.022, 0.026 0.075 -0.110, 0.260
Alcohol consumption (yes vs no (ref.)) -0.005 -0.048, 0.039 -0.008 -0.036, 0.020 -0.048 -0.260, 0.164
Co-morbidities (yes vs no (ref.)) -0.002 -0.025, 0.022 0.005 -0.010, 0.019 0.133 0.020, 0.250*
Urinary glyphosate levels (μg/g creatinine) 0.024 0.000, 0.047* -0.022 -0.037, -0.007** 0.044 -0.069, 0.157
  1. MDA Malondialdehyde, GHS Glutathione, CRP C-reactive Protein, β Beta, 95% CI 95% confidence interval. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01