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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and agricultural information of maize farmers (N = 180)

From: Effects of exposure to glyphosate on oxidative stress, inflammation, and lung function in maize farmers, Northern Thailand

Parameters   Results
Age (mean ± SD)   51.7 ± 8.8
Gender n (%) Male 101 (56.1)
Female 79 (43.9)
Education n (%) Primary school or lower 129 (71.7)
Secondary school or higher 51 (28.3)
BMI (kg/m2), (mean ± SD)   24 ± 3.9
Smoking status n (%) Yes 21 (11.7)
No 159 (88.3)
Alcohol consumption Yes 74 (41.1)
No 106 (58.9)
Co-morbidities n (%) No 101 (56.1)
Yes 79 (43.9)
Respiratory diseases 31 (39.2)
Other co-morbidities 57 (72.2)
Distance between the house and agricultural area (km), median (P25th-P75th) 2 (1.8–2.3)
Type of herbicide spraying equipment Backpack 7 (3.9)
Pump 173 (96.1)
Type of spray handle High pressure 6 (3.3)
Normal pressure 174 (96.7)
Length of spray handle (cm), median (P25th-P75th) 82 (82–82)
Duration of glyphosate application (years), median (P25th-P75th) 12 (10–20)
Exposure time (hours/day), median (P25th-P75th) 3 (2–5)
Amounts of glyphosate use (liters/day), median (P25th-P75th) 600 (400–1,000)
Intensity levels of exposure, median (P25th-P75th)a 9.6 (4.8–14.4)
  1. aThe intensity level of exposure was calculated as proposed by Dosemeci et al. using the following formula: intensity level of exposure = (mix status + application method + repair status) x personal protective equipment[27]