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Table 2 The willingness of the parents to vaccinate their children against COVID-19

From: The willingness of parents to vaccinate their children younger than 12 years against COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

Parameters Willing, n = 2,598 (73.6%) Not willing or unsure, n = 930 (26.4%) P value* Multivariate analysis, OR (95% CI), P value#
Age, (mean ± SD, 95% CI) Years 38.5 ± 6.67, 38.18 – 38.73 39.0 ± 6.56, 38.55 – 39.44 0.046 1.0 (0.99 – 1.00), 0.257
Gender, n (%)
 Mother 1,831 (70.5) 664 (71.4) 0.597 Ref
 Father 767 (29.5) 266 (28.6)   1.0 (0.87 – 1.25), 0.652
Marital status, n (%)
 Married couple 2,441 (94.0) 896 (96.3) 0.006 Ref
 Single parent 157 (6.0) 34 (3.7)   2.0 (1.31 – 3.04), 0.001
Region, n (%)
 Central 1,525 (58.7) 532 (57.2) 0.001 Ref
 Southern 365 (14.0) 123 (13.2)   1.1 (0.84 – 1.38), 0.584
 Northern 210 (8.1) 115 (12.4)   0.7 (0.53 – 0.91), 0.008
 East coast 86 (3.3) 39 (4.2)   0.8 (0.51 – 1.18), 0.226
 Borneo 412 (15.9) 121 (13.0)   1.2 (0.96 – 1.59), 0.103
Education level, n (%)
 Tertiary 2,139 (82.3) 812 (87.3)  < 0.001 Ref
 Secondary and below 459 (17.7) 118 (12.7)   1.5 (1.21 – 1.96), < 0.001
Household income, n (%)
 B40 877 (33.8) 324 (34.8) 0.833 Ref
 M40 1,121 (43.1) 396 (42.6)   1.1 (0.92 – 1.39), 0.231
 T20 600 (23.1) 210 (22.6)   1.1 (0.84 – 1.36), 0.600
Employment status, n (%)
 Employed 2,085 (80.3) 708 (76.1) 0.012 Ref
 Unemployed 492 (18.9) 208 (22.4)   0.8 (0.69 – 1.04), 0.109
 Retired 21 (0.8) 14 (1.5)   0.7 (0.31 – 1.42), 0.290
Healthcare workers, n (%)
 No 2,167 (83.4) 839 (90.2)  < 0.001 Ref
 Yes 431 (16.6) 91 (9.8)   1.7 (1.34 – 2.26), < 0.001
Lived with elderly or someone with chronic illness, n (%)
 No 1,880 (72.4) 696 (74.8) 0.144 -
 Yes 718 (27.6) 234 (25.2)   
History of contact with COVID-19, n (%)
 No 1,921 (73.9) 747 (80.3)  < 0.001 Ref
 Yes 677 (26.1) 183 (19.7)   1.3 (1.07 – 1.61), 0.010
Had been diagnosed with COVID-19, n (%)
 No 2,440 (93.9) 857 (92.2) 0.026 Ref
 Yes 140 (5.4) 58 (6.2)   0.7 (0.49 – 1.06), 0.099
 Prefers not to answer 18 (0.7) 15 (1.6)   0.9 (0.34 – 2.06), 0.705
Families, relatives, colleagues diagnosed with COVID-19, n (%)
 No 850 (32.7) 290 (31.2) 0.390 -
 Yes 1,748 (67.3) 640 (68.8)   
Vaccinated for COVID-19, n (%)
 No 24 (0.9) 106 (11.4)  < 0.001 Ref
 Yes 2,571 (99.0) 761 (81.8)   15.4 (9.76 – 24.33), < 0.001
 Prefers not to answer 3 (0.1) 63 (6.8)   0.3 (0.08 – 0.93), 0.039
Children under 12 years, (median, IQR)
 Number 2, 1 – 2 2, 1 – 3 0.020 1.0 (0.90 – 1.03), 0.276
Age groups of children, n (%)
 5 – 11 years 1,970 (75.8) 733 (78.8) 0.065 -
 2 – 4 years 1,236 (47.6) 455 (48.9) 0.480  
 Below 2 years 425 (16.4) 142 (15.3) 0.437  
Children had chronic illness, n (%)
 No 2,483 (95.6) 862 (92.7)  < 0.001 Ref
 Yes 99 (3.8) 33 (23.5)   (0.62 – 1.47), 0.826
 Prefers not to answer 16 (0.6) 35 (3.8)   0.2 (0.11 – 0.48), < 0.001
  1. *p-value of t-test between parents who were willing versus who were not willing or unsure to vaccinate their children against COVID-19
  2. #p-value of binary logistic regression between parents who were willing versus who were not willing or unsure to vaccinate their children against COVID-19
  3. SD Standard deviation, CI Confidence interval, COVID-19 Coronavirus 2019, B40 Lowest 40% of family income group, M40 Middle 40% of family income group, T20 Top 20% of the family income group, OR Odds ratio, IQR Interquartile range