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Table 2 Rural–urban differential in prevalence of undiagnosed, untreated and undertreated hypertension among older adults by select background characteristics in India (2017–18)

From: Decomposing the rural–urban gap in the prevalence of undiagnosed, untreated and under-treated hypertension among older adults in India

   Undiagnosed Hypertension Untreated Hypertension Undertreated Hypertension
Background characteristics Total Rural Urban R-U Total Rural Urban R-U Total Rural Urban R-U
Sex Male 48.5 52.4 41.7 10.7 6.4 Ϯ 6.8 Ϯ 5.6 Ϯ 1.2 16.7 14.0 21.4 -7.4
Female 37.5 42.6 29.0 13.6 5.7 6.5 4.4 2.1 20.3 17.7 24.6 -6.9
Age group 45–59 years 46.0 48.6 41.9 6.7 5.8 6.2 Ϯ 5.1 1.1 15.2 13.3 18.1 -4.8
60 years & above 39.5 45.5 28.2 17.4 6.2 6.9 4.8 2.2 21.3 18.0 27.6 -9.6
Marital Status Currently married 43.7 47.6 36.9 10.8 6.0 6.5 5.0 Ϯ 1.5 17.2 15.0 21.0 -6.0
Others 39.0 44.8 28.6 16.2 6.1 7.0 4.6 2.4 22.2 18.7 28.5 -9.8
Religion Muslim 37.4 40.7 33.8 Ϯ 6.9 6.1 7.0 5.2 Ϯ 1.8 21.2 19.3 23.4 -4.1
Hindu 43.2 47.9 34.7 13.2 5.9 6.5 4.9 1.6 18.0 15.3 22.9 -7.6
Others 40.1 43.2 32.7 10.5 7.0 8.1 4.5 3.6 22.6 20.6 27.6 -7.0
Social Group SC 44.8 46.5 39.2 7.3 7.6 8.4 5.0 3.4 16.5 15.4 20.4 -5.1
ST 61.2 65.0 37.9 27.2 6.9 6.4 9.8 -3.4 10.7 9.5 18.2 -8.8
OBC 42.2 45.5 37.1 8.4 5.3 5.9 4.3 1.6 18.8 16.4 22.6 -6.2
Others 36.1 42.0 29.0 13.0 6.0 6.6 5.3 1.2 21.9 18.9 25.5 -6.6
Economic Status Poorest 50.9 57.7 40.4 17.3 7.3 7.1 Ϯ 7.6 -0.5 14.7 11.3 19.8 -8.5
Poorer 45.1 50.4 34.7 15.7 7.0 7.6 5.6 2.0 17.3 14.0 23.6 -9.6
Middle 43.9 47.2 37.7 9.4 5.9 6.8 4.3 2.5 18.5 17.0 21.3 -4.3
Richer 37.0 40.6 30.9 9.7 5.5 6.6 3.5 3.1 22.1 17.7 29.7 -12.0
Richest 34.9 38.7 28.4 10.4 4.5 5.1 3.6 1.5 20.8 20.2 21.8 -1.6
Education Not literate 45.6 48.4 35.9 Ϯ 12.5 6.3 Ϯ 6.3 5.9 0.4 16.9 15.2 22.6 Ϯ -7.4
Primary or below 40.5 43.9 35.2 8.7 5.6 6.5 4.0 2.5 19.2 16.5 23.5 -7.0
Secondary 36.1 44.7 28.8 16.0 5.9 7.6 4.6 3.0 23.4 19.6 26.7 -7.1
Higher secondary or above 40.1 44.2 38.3 5.9 6.0 8.7 4.8 3.9 18.9 17.1 19.7 -2.6
Work Status Never worked 32.1 37.2 26.5 10.7 5.2 6.5 3.9 Ϯ 2.6 23.1 20.0 26.4 -6.4
Currently not working 38.3 42.3 30.1 12.2 6.9 7.4 5.9 1.5 21.5 19.1 26.2 -7.0
Currently working 53.7 56.1 48.1 8.0 5.9 6.2 5.2 0.9 12.9 11.3 16.6 -5.3
Health Insurance Covered 42.1 Ϯ 46.5 Ϯ 33.4 Ϯ 13.1 5.8 Ϯ 6.1 Ϯ 5.1 Ϯ 1.0 19.4 Ϯ 17.9 Ϯ 22.3 Ϯ -4.4
Not covered 42.3 46.9 34.7 12.2 6.1 6.8 4.9 1.9 18.5 15.6 23.5 -7.9
Region North 33.9 36.7 28.3 8.4 8.6 9.2 7.6 1.6 20.3 18.5 23.9 -5.4
Central 49.2 54.4 36.8 17.6 6.0 5.5 7.3 -1.8 12.4 9.3 19.8 -10.5
East 41.9 45.9 28.5 17.4 7.5 8.2 5.4 2.8 18.6 16.1 26.9 -10.9
Northeast 41.6 43.9 32.7 11.2 10.4 11.3 6.6 4.7 20.6 18.8 27.1 -8.3
West 45.6 51.9 38.4 13.5 5.1 5.6 4.6 1.1 17.8 14.1 21.9 -7.8
South 40.3 45.0 35.6 9.4 3.4 3.7 3.0 0.7 22.6 21.6 23.6 -2.0
Comorbidity None 59.2 61.8 53.7 8.1 5.4 5.8 4.6 Ϯ 1.2 12.0 10.7 14.6 -3.9
At least one 29.1 33.7 21.9 11.8 6.5 7.4 5.1 2.3 24.0 20.8 28.9 -8.1
Physical Activity Inactive 39.3 43.7 32.2 11.6 5.9 Ϯ 6.4 Ϯ 5.1 Ϯ 1.3 20.2 18.2 23.4 -5.2
Moderately active 41.0 47.0 32.2 14.9 6.0 7.4 3.8 3.6 22.2 16.5 30.5 -14.0
Highly active 54.1 55.6 49.5 6.1 6.6 6.9 5.4 1.5 10.7 9.6 13.9 -4.2
Tobacco Consumption Never consumed 38.6 43.1 32.4 10.8 5.5 6.3 4.4 1.9 20.7 18.3 24.0 -5.8
Currently not consuming any 37.8 42.3 28.6 13.7 7.7 9.2 4.6 4.6 22.3 17.9 31.3 -13.5
Smokes only 52.4 53.0 50.7 2.3 7.1 6.9 7.9 -1.0 12.3 10.5 17.6 -7.1
Uses smokeless tobacco only 50.4 54.2 39.2 15.0 6.9 7.1 6.2 0.9 14.7 13.2 19.0 -5.8
Both smokable and smokeless 55.7 58.1 47.1 10.9 5.1 3.8 9.6 -5.8 8.9 7.2 14.9 -7.7
Body Mass Index Normal 45.5 49.0 38.0 11.0 6.2 6.5 5.5 1.0 16.8 14.9 20.9 -6.0
Underweight 52.6 54.0 45.1 8.9 6.8 7.0 6.0 1.0 9.7 8.9 14.0 -5.1
Overweight 33.5 37.1 30.2 6.9 5.4 6.7 4.3 2.5 25.1 23.8 26.3 -2.5
TOTAL 42.3 46.8 34.4 12.4 6.0 6.7 4.9 1.7 18.7 16.1 23.3 -7.2
  1. R Rural, U Urban; R-U percentage- point differences
  2. All p-values for chi squared test statistic were below 0.05 except those marked.Ϯ
  3. Source: Authors’ own calculations from Longitudinal Ageing Study in India, 2017–18 (LASI-Wave I)