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Table 2 Data extraction chart: studies included in the scoping review on the use of digital stories as a health promotion intervention

From: The use of digital stories as a health promotion intervention: a scoping review

Author(s), Year Country Setting of Digital Story Screening Description of the Digital Storytelling Interventiona Study Design Theory Used Measure(s) Outcomes
Carlson et al. (2020)b [33] U.S.A Clinical Creators: Latino, Spanish-speaking patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D)
Viewers: Latino adults diagnosed with T2D living in rural areas (n = 23)
Intervention: Group viewing of digital stories followed by discussion
Quasi-experimental Social Cognitive Theory and Culture-Centric Narratives in Health Promotion Qualitative: Observational notes and audio recordings of focus groups
Quantitative: Pre/Post intervention surveys
Qualitative: Sessions rated as highly acceptable, interesting, and useful; Improvements in confidence, motivation, and behavioral intentions for T2D self-management, facilitated discussions may add value to viewing DS
Quantitative: Statistically significant findings reflected in measurements of both ‘motivation for’ (p < 0.01) and ‘confidence in’ T2D self-management (p = 0.02)
Coleman, Ramm, and Cooke (2010) [38] United Kingdom School Creators: Young people (ages not specified) created digital stories to address the consequences of binge drinking
Viewers: Young people (14–16 years old) who drink alcohol (n = 89 participants matched between timepoints two and three included in inferential analysis)
Intervention: Group viewing of digital stories followed by discussion and questionnaires at three timepoints
Quasi-experimental Theory of Planned Behavior Quantitative: Questionnaires one-month prior to the intervention, immediately after viewing the intervention, and six months after the intervention Quantitative: Positive effect on knowledge for the intervention sample (F = 3.35; p = 0.07); Intervention participants got drunk fewer times in the last week compared to controls (F = 1.90; p = 0.07)
Chia-Chen Chen, Wonsun, and Larkey (2019) [26] U.S.A Community Creators: Vietnamese American mothers of children vaccinated against HPV
Viewers: Vietnamese American mothers of at least one unvaccinated child between the ages of 11–17 years old (n = 10)
Intervention: Group viewing of digital stories followed by surveys
Quasi-experimental Culture-Centric Narratives in Health Promotion Quantitative: Pre/Post intervention surveys Quantitative: Statistically significant findings in the knowledge (effect size = 1.0; p = 0.03) and attitudes (effect size = 0.8; p = 0.05) around HPV vaccination. The intervention was determined feasible and acceptable to participants. All participants reported their intent to vaccinate their children
Cueva, Kuhnley, Revels, Schoenberg, and Dignan (2015) [34] U.S.A Clinical Creators: Community Health Aide/Practitioners (CHA/P) created short 2–3-min movies on the topics of wellness, cancer risk reduction and prevention, and screening for early detection and treatment
Viewers: Rural community members (n = 15)
Intervention: Community members watched the DS online, at the health clinic, at home, at a community showing, at a local business, or at work. They were invited to participate in a telephone interview 1–5 months after watching the DS
Case Study Culture-Centric Narratives in Health Promotion and Indigenous Epistemology and Ontology Qualitative: Post intervention interview Qualitative: Digital stories reported as an “emotionally engaging” approach, a starting place for discussions on inner reflection, insight, and cancer prevention. Emphasis on indigenous epistemology and ontology stemming from prioritized relationships and interconnectedness
Cueva et al. (2016) [35] U.S.A Community Creators: Community Health Workers (CHWs) created digital stories on tobacco cessation, colon and breast screening, treatment, and early detection of cancer
Viewers: Alaska Native community members. (n = 29)
Intervention: Group viewing of digital stories followed by questionnaire and discussion
Case study None listed Qualitative: Open-ended questionnaire and focus groups with written and verbal comments Qualitative: Participants described digital stories as being culturally respectful, engaging, informational, inspiring, and motivational
Flicker et al. (2020) [39] Canada Community Creators: Indigenous youth who participated in digital storytelling workshops on HIV activism
Viewers: Members from the youths’ community and internationally (number of viewers not listed)
Intervention: Youth hosted group screenings in their communities followed by discussions
Case study Bioecological Model of Human Development Qualitative: Semi-structured qualitative interviews with youth creators and discussion with audience members Qualitative: the impact of digital stories was seen at the macro (policy), meso (family, peers, and community), and micro (youth) levels. The digital stories sparked conversations in the community about HIV prevention and care. Community support spread through kinship networks
Jernigan, Salvatore, Styne, and Winkleby (2012) [36] U.S.A Community Creators: Native American community leaders
Viewers: Community members (n = 40)
Intervention: Group viewing of DS followed by focus groups
Case study Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE) Policy Engagement Framework Qualitative: Focus Groups Qualitative: Community members identified racial injustice and both physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. This outcome resulted in creation of local policies to reduce identified barriers
Treffry-Goatley, Lessells, Moletsane, de Oliveira, and Gaede (2018) [40] South Africa Clinical Creators: Community members recruited from primary healthcare programs discussing HIV and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
Viewers: Digital stories were disseminated to 7 local public health clinics for patients’ viewing. Respondents before screening (n = 852), Respondents after screening (n = 860), Participants from the general public, healthcare workers, and Community Advisory Board (n = 65)
Intervention: Viewed DS in waiting room followed by survey and discussion
Quasi-experimental Freire’s Theoretical Framework of Empowerment Qualitative: Focus groups, and observation of individuals watching digital stories
Quantitative: Surveys
Qualitative: Focus groups revealed that DS are an effective way to engage people and stimulate discussion around HIV and its treatment
Quantitative: Descriptive statistics demonstrated no difference in knowledge or understanding of HIV or ART between intervention and control participants
Wieland et al. (2017)b [37] U.S.A Clinical Creators c: Latino and Somali storytellers completed a digital storytelling workshop onT2D self-management
Viewers: Latino and Somali patients (n = 25)
Intervention: Individual viewing of digital stories followed by face-to-face interviews and blood glucose measurement
Cross-sectional structured interviews; Cohort Study Narrative Theory and Social Cognitive Theory Qualitative: interviews to assess intervention acceptability, interest level, usefulness, self-rated confidence, and motivation for managing T2D
Quantitative: measures of A1C for intervention feasibility and preliminary evidence
Qualitative: High acceptability, stated to be interesting, and useful. Reported a range of main messages coinciding with intention to change T2D related behavior, more confident about managing T2D after watching the video, and plans to share video
Quantitative: hemoglobin A1C change was statistically significant among Latino participants (-1.5% [-17 mmol/mol] change from baseline; p = 0.03) but not Somali participants (-0.4% [-4 mmol/mol] change from baseline; p = 0.36)
Willis et al. (2014) [41] Zimbabwe Community Creators: Young people (18–22 years old) from (HIV) Africaid Zvandiri programme
Viewers: Primary caregivers of the creators (n = 12)
Intervention: Group viewing of digital stories followed by discussion
Case study Social Constructionism in the context of narrative therapy Qualitative: One focus group with caregivers Qualitative: Caregivers stated that after watching the DS they had a better understanding of their children and that the intervention helped share memories of people who had died and in some cases helped individuals accept their own HIV status
  1. aViewers were not creators of the intervention
  2. bThe Carlson et. al. and Wieland et. al. articles come from the same research group and thus use the same digital stories
  3. cInformation extracted from Njeru J.W., et al. (2015) [49]