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Table 3 Outcomes on measures of mental health first aid intentions, confidence and behaviours

From: teen Mental Health First Aid: 12-month outcomes from a cluster crossover randomized controlled trial evaluation of a universal program to help adolescents better support peers with a mental health problem

MHFA outcomes Baseline 1-year follow up      
PFAa tMHFAb PFAc tMHFAd      
M SD M SD M SD M SD M diff 95% CI p de ICCf
Quality of first aid intentionsg
 Helpful intentions – John 3.76 1.58 3.77 1.49 3.62 1.51 4.06 1.67 0.44 0.25–0.64  < .001 0.28 .004
 Unhelpful intentions – Johnh 68.1% 68.3% 66.2% 53.8% OR 0.42 0.27–0.65  < .001a   .000
 Helpful intentions – Jeanie 3.22 1.58 3.3 1.53 3.32 1.51 3.57 1.62 0.2 -0.01–0.4 0.056 0.16 .003
 Unhelpful intentions – Jeanieh 60.3% 57.5% 53.3% 49.1% OR 0.83 0.54–1.29 .419a   .001
Confidence in helping
 John 3.63 0.99 3.54 0.97 3.34 1.02 3.58 0.94 0.33 0.21–0.46  < .001 0.24 .004
 Jeanie 3.7 0.99 3.69 1.01 3.54 0.99 3.71 0.92 0.15 0.02–0.28 0.021 0.18 .008
Quality of first aid provided to a peer
 Helpful behaviours providedi 3.08 1.67 3.09 1.72 3.11 1.64 3.39 1.64 0.26 -0.10–0.63 .159 0.17 0.000
 Unhelpful behaviours providedj 60% 54.0% 49% 35% OR 0.62 0.31–1.22 .163   0.000
Quality of first aid received from a peer
 Helpful behaviours receivedk 2.99 1.57 2.86 1.46 3.13 1.52 2.54 1.36 -0.53 -1.12–0.06 .079 -.4 0.070
 Unhelpful behaviours receivedl 49% 48% 47.2% 34.4% OR 0.34 0.10–1.20 .093   0.000
  1. All mixed models were adjusted for school, year, gender, age (and K6 scores for Quality of first aid provided to/received from a peer). Boldface indicates statistical significance
  2. aFor John vignette depicting peer with symptoms of depression & suicide risk n = 791; for Jeanie vignette depicting peer with symptoms of social anxiety n = 769
  3. bFor John vignette n = 807; for Jeanie vignette n = 792
  4. cFor John vignette n = 429; for Jeanie vignette n = 409
  5. dFor John vignette n = 465; for Jeanie vignette n = 446
  6. eLarge effect size Cohen’s d = 0.8, medium effect size d = 0.5, small effect size d = 0.2
  7. fPeriod-cluster intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicate the proportion of variability in the outcome attributable across clusters
  8. gThis measure was the primary outcome
  9. hScores were non-normally distributed (rarely endorsed), so were dichotomised at 0/1–6; values shown are % scoring 1 or above and mixed effects logistic regression models
  10. iIncludes those who reported offering help at either timepoint; n = 483 at baseline, n = 136 at follow-up, n = 215 at both points, n = 834 total
  11. jScores were non-normally distributed with heavy skew (rarely endorsed), so were dichotomised at 0/1–6; values shown are % scoring 1 or above and mixed effects logistic regression models based on scores from n = 834
  12. kIncludes only those who reported experiencing a mental health problem at baseline and 12 m follow-up and receiving help from a peer; n = 309
  13. lScores were non-normally distributed with heavy skew (rarely endorsed), so were dichotomised at 0/1–6; values shown are % scoring 1 or above and mixed effects logistic regression models based on scores from n = 309