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Table 3 Meal frequency and differences before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

From: Lifestyle behaviors in Swedish university students before and during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic: a cohort study

  All1 Women2 Men2  ≤ 25 years3  > 25 years3
Breakfast
  Mean days/week at baseline 4.4 5.6 5.0 4.2 5.2
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 0.1
(-0.0, 0.2)
0.1
(-0.0, 0.2)
-0.0
(-0.3, 0.2)
0.2
(0.0, 0.3)
-0.0
(-0.2, 0.2)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 0.2
(0.1, 0.3)
0.1
(0.0, 0.3)
0.1
(-0.2, 0.4)
0.2
(0.0, 0.4)
0.1
(-0.0, 0.3)
Morning snack
  Mean days/week at baseline 2.0 2.5 2.1 2.0 2.0
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.2
(-0.2, -0.1)
-0.3
(-0.5, -0.1)
-0.0
(-0.3, 0.2)
-0.2
(-0.4, -0.1)
-0.2
(-0.4, -0.0)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.4
(-0.5, -0.2)
-0.4
(-0.6, -0.2)
-0.2
(-0.5, 0.1)
-0.3
(-0.5, -0.1)
-0.4
(-0.6, -0.2)
Lunch
  Mean days/week at baseline 5.5 6.3 6.3 5.4 6.2
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.2
(-0.2, -0.1)
-0.1
(-0.3, -0.0)
-0.2
(-0.3, 0.0)
-0.2
(-0.3, -0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.1)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.2
(-0.3, -0.0)
-0.2
(-0.3, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.3, 0.1)
-0.2
(-0.3, -0.0)
-0.2
(-0.3, 0.0)
Afternoon snack
  Mean days/week at baseline 2.9 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.7
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.1)
-0.2
(-0.5, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.3, 0.1)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.4
(-0.5, -0.2)
-0.4
(-0.5, -0.2)
-0.4
(-0.7, -0.1)
-0.5
(-0.7, -0.3)
-0.2
(-0.5, -0.0)
Dinner
  Mean days/week at baseline 6.3 6.6 6.7 6.3 6.7
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 -0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.3, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.2
(-0.3, -0.1)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 -0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.2, -0.0)
-0.1
(-0.3, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.0)
-0.2
(-0.3, -0.1)
Evening snack
  Mean days/week at baseline 3.1 2.7 3.2 3.1 2.7
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 0.1
(0.0, 0.3)
0.2
(0.0, 0.3)
0.1
(-0.2, 0.4)
0.1
(-0.1, 0.3)
0.2
(-0.0, 0.4)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 0.1
(-0.0, 0.3)
0.2
(-0.0, 0.3)
0.1
(-0.2, 0.4)
0.1
(-0.1, 0.3)
0.2
(-0.0, 0.4)
Other meal 1
  Mean days/week at baseline 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 0.1
(-0.1, 0.2)
0.1
(-0.1, 0.2)
-0.0
(-0.3, 0.3)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.1)
0.2
(-0.0, 0.4)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 0.0
(-0.1, 0.2)
0.1
(-0.1, 0.2)
-0.1
(-0.4, 0.1)
-0.1
(-0.2, 0.1)
0.1
(-0.1, 0.3)
Other meal 2
  Mean days/week at baseline 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.5
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU1 0.2
(0.0, 0.3)
0.1
(0.0, 0.3)
0.2
(-0.1, 0.4)
0.1
(-0.1, 0.2)
0.2
(0.1, 0.4)
  Mean difference in days (95% CI) from baseline to FU2 0.1
(-0.0, 0.2)
0.1
(-0.0, 0.2)
0.1
(-0.1, 0.4)
0.0
(-0.1, 0.2)
0.2
(-0.0, 0.3)
  1. Abbreviations, FU1 follow-up 1 (March 14, 2020 to June 15, 2020), FU2 follow-up 2 (June 16, 2020 to September 10, 2020)
  2. 1Adjusted for follow-up period, age, and sex
  3. 2Adjusted for follow-up period and age
  4. 3Adjusted for follow-up period and sex