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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by sleep duration groups

From: Association between sleep duration and albumin in US adults: a cross-sectional study of NHANES 2015–2018

sleep duration (h)
  \(\le\) 5 5–6 6–7 7–8 8–9 \(>\) 9 P value
N 694 1051 2248 2926 1890 1164  
sleep duration (ungrouped, h) 4.46 ± 0.67 5.89 ± 0.21 6.85 ± 0.23 7.80 ± 0.24 8.78 ± 0.25 10.28 ± 0.86  < 0.0001
sleep timing (%)         < 0.0001
 18:00–21:59 2.35 7.14 11.15 17.54 28.37 38.11  
 22:00–22:59 9.58 16.60 29.03 36.15 35.51 27.66  
 23:00–23:59 15.25 33.20 32.32 28.50 19.45 17.22  
 later than 00:00 72.83 43.06 27.50 17.82 16.67 17.01  
age (years) 49.01 ± 16.10 47.33 ± 15.13 47.36 ± 15.73 47.93 ± 16.65 49.10 ± 18.54 49.82 ± 20.32 0.0002
sex (%)         < 0.0001
 male 54.43 55.38 55.74 46.80 38.49 39.59  
 female 45.57 44.62 44.26 53.20 61.51 60.41  
race         < 0.0001
 Mexican American 17.56 18.54 16.56 13.58 14.84 17.12  
 non-Hispanic white 48.41 56.31 62.47 68.50 67.58 59.90  
 non-Hispanic black 23.87 15.92 10.56 7.89 8.20 13.83  
 other race 10.16 9.23 10.41 10.03 9.38 9.15  
marital status (%)         < 0.0001
 married or living with partner 52.72 63.89 67.28 67.04 63.62 52.60  
 living alone 47.28 36.11 32.72 32.96 36.38 47.40  
moderate work activity (%)         < 0.0001
 yes 51.69 54.68 47.91 47.82 45.29 37.73  
 no 48.31 45.32 52.09 52.18 54.71 62.27  
TP (g/L) 71.68 ± 4.57 70.94 ± 4.39 71.25 ± 4.29 70.97 ± 4.19 70.75 ± 4.46 71.12 ± 4.61  < 0.0001
ALT (IU/L) 26.43 ± 21.66 25.58 ± 16.57 24.92 ± 16.58 24.01 ± 16.41 23.43 ± 16.29 22.40 ± 15.94  < 0.0001
AST (IU/L) 25.63 ± 18.35 24.23 ± 12.30 24.06 ± 13.01 23.62 ± 10.20 23.68 ± 11.96 23.57 ± 13.98 0.0135
Crlog2 (μmol/L) 6.25 ± 0.40 6.23 ± 0.38 6.23 ± 0.36 6.20 ± 0.37 6.18 ± 0.38 6.23 ± 0.46  < 0.0001
UACRlog2 (mg/g) 3.26 ± 1.52 3.07 ± 1.45 3.07 ± 1.56 3.08 ± 1.47 3.14 ± 1.41 3.51 ± 1.78  < 0.0001
HS-CRP (mg/L) 3.65 ± 4.55 4.38 ± 8.20 3.51 ± 5.98 3.86 ± 7.47 3.81 ± 6.31 4.84 ± 10.44  < 0.0001
GLU (mmol/L) 5.71 ± 2.09 5.63 ± 1.87 5.55 ± 1.75 5.52 ± 1.90 5.52 ± 1.71 5.73 ± 2.02 0.0079
BMI (kg/m2) 30.42 ± 7.62 30.52 ± 7.52 29.84 ± 7.14 29.27 ± 6.67 29.58 ± 7.20 29.22 ± 7.02  < 0.0001
hypertension         < 0.0001
 yes 40.07 34.95 30.46 30.79 31.12 38.41  
 no 59.78 65.05 69.45 69.13 68.73 61.43  
 unknown 0.15   0.09 0.08 0.15 0.16  
high cholesterol (%)         < 0.0001
 yes 34.32 33.75 31.49 33.10 34.84 36.24  
 no 64.71 65.69 68.20 66.80 64.78 62.62  
 unknown 0.97 0.56 0.31 0.11 0.38 1.14  
cancer or malignancy (%)         < 0.0001
 yes 9.26 8.44 8.85 10.38 13.88 13.19  
 no 90.74 91.28 91.13 89.62 85.96 86.81  
 unknown   0.27 0.03   0.16   
ALB (g/L) 41.41 ± 3.48 41.81 ± 3.44 42.49 ± 3.68 42.50 ± 3.54 42.04 ± 3.67 41.66 ± 3.98  < 0.0001
  1. N referred to sample size
  2. Mean ± SEs for continuous variables, P values were calculated by weighted linear regression model
  3. Percentage (%) for categorical variables, P values were calculated by weighted chi-square test
  4. Abbreviations: ALB Albumin, TP Total Protein, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, Cr Creatinine, HS-CRP High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein, GLU Glucose, BMI Body Mass Index, UACR Urinary Albumin-creatinine Ratio
  5. UACR and Cr were estimated after logarithmic transformation