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Table 3 Association between COVID-19 related knowledge and Fear of SARS-COV-2 infection

From: Knowledge deficit and fear of COVID-19 among higher education students during the first wave of the pandemic and implications for public health: a multi-country cross-sectional survey

Variables Category Afraid Unafraid P Value Crude OR 95%CI lower 95%CI upper Adjusted ORa 95%CI lower 95%CI upper
Age group 17–19 years 6606 8126 < 0.01 1 ref Ref 1 ref ref
20–22 years 18,161 22,183 0.71 1.007 0.96 1.04 1.03 0.98 1.08
23-25 years 9534 12,563 0.01 0.93 0.89 0.97 1.01 0.96 1.07
26–28 years 3257 4050 0.70 0.98 0.93 1.04 1.10 1.02 1.18
> = 29 years 4823 4860 < 0.01 1.22 1.15 1.28 1.20 1.12 1.28
Sex Male 9026 16,424 < 0.01 1 ref Ref 1 Ref ref
female 33,071 35,033 < 0.01 1.71 1.66 1·76 1.68 1.63 1.74
X 284 325 < 0.01 1.59 1.35 1.86 1.45 1.21 1.75
Educational level Bachelor 27,883 33,093 < 0.01 1 ref ref 1 ref Ref
Master 9365 12,539 < 0.01 0.88 0.85 0.91 0.97 0.93 1.01
PhD 1746 2146 0.29 0.96 0.90 1.03 0.94 0.86 1.02
other 2428 3040 0.06 0.94 0.89 1.002 0.96 0.90 1.03
Field of study Non- health field 32,530 38,912 < 0.01 1 ref ref 1 Ref ref
Health 7975 10,903 < 0.01 0.87 0.84 0.90 0.77 0.74 0.80
Underlying medical condition None 34,319 45,043 < 0.01 1 ref ref 1 ref Ref
present 6960 5717 < 001 1.59 1.54 1.66 1.53 1.46 1.60
Prefer not to say 1036 966 < 001 1.40 1.29 1.54 1.53 1.37 1.71
Personal network infection history Yes 17,123 19,482 < 001 1 ref ref 1 ref ref
No 25,178 32,205 < 001 0.88 0.86 0.91 0.99 0.96 1.03
Govt Timely info. Strongly agree 4234 6187 < 0.01 ref ref ref 1 ref ref
agree 14,007 18,941 0.007 1.08 1.03 1.12 1.11 1.05 1.17
Neither agree nor disagree 8947 10,495 < 0.01 1.24 1.18 1.30 1.21 1.15 1.29
disagree 9688 10,327 < 0.01 1.37 1.30 1.43 1.34 1.26 1.42
Strongly agree 4543 4672 < 0.01 1.42 1.34 1.50 1.42 1.32 1.52
Total knowledge Good 29,576 36,435 0.013 ref ref ref Ref ref ref
Poor 12,790 12,472 0.013 0.96 0.94 0.99 1.05 1.01 1.08
Variables Mean β SD P-value Crude OR 95%CI lower 95%CI upper Adjusted ORa 95%CI lower 95%CI upper
Risk perception 4.14 0.19 0.003 < 0.01 1.197 1.190 1.20 1.21 1.20 1.22
Alcohol use increasea −0.34 0.09 0.009 < 0.01 1.09 1.03 1.11 1.09 1.07 1.11
Smoking increasea −0.097 −0.03 0.01 < 0.01 0.94 0.92 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.98
Moderate physical activity increasea −0.42 −0.02 0.004 < 0.01 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.97 0.96 0.98
Vigorous physical activity increasea −0.144 − 0.001 0.005 0.79 0.99 0.98 1 0.99 0.98 1.00
Sufficient
Financial resources increasea
−0.379 − 0.12 0.007 < 0.01 0.86 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.87 0.89
Measurement adherence 8.023 0.16 0.004 < 0.01 1.20 1.19 1.21 1.17 1.16 1.18
  1. aIncrease– refers to the positive increase in a variable during the COVID-19 minus before the COVID-19 pandemic measurements