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Table 5 Bivariate analysis of the dichotomized Interpersonal Relationships score in the surveyed Venezuelan immigrants in commercial zones of Lima, Peru (N = 143)

From: Association between time of residence and self-perception of distress, interpersonal relationships, and social role in Venezuelan immigrants in Lima, Peru 2018–19: mixed-methods study

Variables Clinically Significant Not Clinically Significant p-value*
(n = 19) (n = 124)
Gender
 Masculine 13 (15.7%) 70 (84.3%) p = 0.455
 Feminine 6 (10.0%) 54 (90.0%)
Age (median, IQR) 22 (20 – 28) 26.5 (23 – 35) p = 0.011
Age groupa
 18–19 2 (25.0%) 6 (75.0%) p = 0.177††
 20–24 9 (18.8%) 39 (81.2%)  
 25–59 8 (9.2%) 79 (90.8%)  
Civil statusb
 Without partner 18 (16.8%) 89 (83.2%) p = 0.044
 With partner 1 (2.8%) 35 (97.2%)
Education level
 Primary 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%) p = 0.420
 Secondary 9 (18.8%) 39 (81.2%)
 Higher educationc 10 (10.9%) 82 (89.1%)
Raced
 White 3 (5.9%) 48 (94.1%) p = 0.249
 Colored 15 (18.5%) 68 (81.5%)
 Black 1 (14.3%) 6 (85.7%)
 Indigenous 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%)
 Other 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%)  
Monthly income (soles)e
  < 930 5 (12.5%) 35 (87.5%) p = 0.863††
  ≥ 930 14 (13.6%) 89 (86.4%)  
Months in Peru (median, IQR) 6 (3 – 9) 7 (4–10) p = 0.623†
Migratory qualityf
 Without work permit 2 (25.0%) 6 (75.0%) p = 0.288
 With work permit 17 (12.6%) 118 (87.4%)  
First entry point into Peru
 Lima/Callao 2 (14.3%) 12 (85.7%) p = 0.505
 Piura 0 (0.0%) 12 (100.0%)  
 Tumbes 17 (14.8%) 98 (85.2%)  
Home region
 Andean 2 (16.7%) 10 (83.3%) p = 0.801
 Capital 3 (8.3%) 33 (91.7%)
 Central 5 (16.1%) 26 (83.9%)  
 Guayana 2 (28.6%) 5 (71.4%)  
 Insular 0 (0.0%) 4 (100.0%)  
 Llanos 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%)  
 Eastern 3 (18.8%) 13 (81.2%)  
 Central-Western 2 (10.0%) 18 (90.0%)  
 Zulia 2 (20.0%) 8 (90.0%)  
Travel method
 Foot 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%) p = 0.754
 Bus 16 (13.0%) 107 (87.0%)  
 Air 2 (14.3%) 12 (85.7%)  
 Mixedh 1 (20.0%) 4 (80.0%)  
  1. *p < 0.050 using Fisher exact test except those marked with † or †† where Mann-Whitney U test or chi-squared test were used, respectively
  2. aAge groups are according to the World Health Organization, 2017
  3. bWith partner includes married (13.3%) and cohabitant (11.9%); without partner includes single (74.1%), and widowed (0.7%)
  4. cHigher education includes university, institute, technical career, without importance to whether it was finalized
  5. dBased on designations in the 2011 Venezuelan Census. Other refers to any other self-reported race that is not explicitly mentioned
  6. eThe minimum wage in Peru is 930 soles (April 1, 2018)
  7. fWithout work permit incudes refugee claimant (2.1%) and tourist (3.5%); with work permit includes Temporary Permit of Permanence (85.3%), resident (2.1%), family of resident (0.7%), refugee (2.8%), and immigrant (3.5%)
  8. gPolitical-administrative regions are according to the Government of Venezuela (June 7, 1969)
  9. hAny combination of more than one travel method