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Table 4 Bivariate analysis of the dichotomized Symptom Distress score in the surveyed Venezuelan immigrants in commercial zones of Lima, Peru (N = 143)

From: Association between time of residence and self-perception of distress, interpersonal relationships, and social role in Venezuelan immigrants in Lima, Peru 2018–19: mixed-methods study

Variables Clinically Significant Not Clinically Significant p-value*
(n = 4) (n = 139)
Gender
 Masculine 2 (3.3%) 81 (97.6%) p = 1.000
 Feminine 2 (2.4%) 58 (96.7%)
Age (median, IQR) 22.5 (18 – 33) 26 (22 – 33) p = 0.303†
Age groupa
 18–19 2 (25.0%) 6 (75.0%) p = 0.009
 20–24 0 (0.0%) 48 (100.0%)  
 25–59 2 (2.3%) 85 (97.7%)  
Civil statusb
 Without partner 3 (2.8%) 104 (97.2%) p = 1.000
 With partner 1 (2.8%) 35 (97.2%)
Education level
 Primary 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%) p = 0.639
 Secondary 2 (4.2%) 46 (95.8%)
 Higher educationc 2 (2.2%) 90 (97.8%)
Raced
 White 1 (2.0%) 50 (98.0%) p = 1.000
 Colored 3 (3.7%) 78 (96.3%)
 Black 0 (0.0%) 7 (100.0%)
 Indigenous 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%)
 Other 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%)  
Monthly income (soles)e
  < 930 1 (2.5%) 39 (97.5%) p = 1.000
  ≥ 930 3 (2.9%) 100 (97.1%)  
Months in Peru (median, IQR) 4.5 (2–8.5) 7 (4–10) p = 0.320†
Migratory qualityf
 Without work permit 0 (0.0%) 8 (100.0%) p = 1.000
 With work permit 4 (3.0%) 131 (97.0%)  
First entry point into Peru
 Lima/Callao 1 (7.1%) 13 (92.9%) p = 0.155
 Piura 1 (8.3%) 11 (91.7%)  
 Tumbes 2 (1.7%) 113 (98.3%)  
Home region
 Andean 0 (0.0%) 12 (100.0%) p = 0.071
 Capital 0 (0.0%) 36 (100.0%)
 Central 1 (3.2%) 30 (96.8%)  
 Guayana 2 (28.6%) 5 (71.4%)  
 Insular 0 (0.0%) 4 (100.0%)  
 Llanos 0 (0.0%) 3 (100.0%)  
 Eastern 0 (0.0%) 16 (100.0%)  
 Central-Western 1 (5.0%) 19 (95.0%)  
 Zulia 0 (0.0%) 10 (100.0%)  
Travel method
 Foot 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%) p = 0.071
 Bus 2 (1.6%) 121 (98.4%)  
 Air 1 (7.1%) 13 (92.9%)  
 Mixedh 1 (20.0%) 4 (80.0%)  
  1. *p < 0.050 using Fisher exact test except those marked with † or †† where Mann-Whitney U test or chi-squared test were used, respectively
  2. aAge groups are according to the World Health Organization, 2017
  3. bWith partner includes married (13.3%) and cohabitant (11.9%); without partner includes single (74.1%), and widowed (0.7%)
  4. cHigher education includes university, institute, technical career, without importance to whether it was finalized
  5. dBased on designations in the 2011 Venezuelan Census. Other refers to any other self-reported race that is not explicitly mentioned
  6. eThe minimum wage in Peru is 930 soles (April 1, 2018)
  7. fWithout work permit incudes refugee claimant (2.1%) and tourist (3.5%); with work permit includes Temporary Permit of Permanence (85.3%), resident (2.1%), family of resident (0.7%), refugee (2.8%), and immigrant (3.5%)
  8. gPolitical-administrative regions are according to the Government of Venezuela (June 7, 1969)
  9. hAny combination of more than one travel method