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Table 1 Sources of neighborhood data compiled in this study, within the five Detroit Metro counties

From: Associations between neighborhood built, social, or toxicant conditions and child externalizing behaviors in the Detroit metro area: a cross-sectional study of the neighborhood ‘exposome’

Construct Measure Instrument or source of data Time period
Built conditions Alcohol outlets Liquor Control Board licenses and from the USA reference database (https://lib.msu.edu/about/data/referenceusahistorical/), n = 14,916 Business primary revenue source (2011)
Vacant properties Tax parcel data for each jurisdiction, coded as vacant, n = 113,028 2011
Agricultural land use Tax parcel data for each jurisdiction, coded for land use, n = 321,405 2011
Greenspaces ESRI, n = 870 2018
Churches Urban Institute National Center for Charitable Statistics Data Archives (https://nccs-data.urban.org/data.php?ds=core), n = 264 2011
Non-profit organizations Urban Institute National Center for Charitable Statistics Data Archives (https://nccs-data.urban.org/data.php?ds=core), n = 1657 2011
Social conditions Perceived social process Questionnaires administered to neighbors via Michigan Twins Study, mean number of neighbors per family = 16.04 (SD = 11.48, range of 1 to 45), social cohesion and social control 2008-2014
Poverty Area Deprivation Index, University of Wisconsin, n = 3773 2015
ACS 5-year estimates 2008-2012
Toxicant conditions Quantities of industrial toxicants ToxMap EPA Tri-facilities, combined toxicant releases (https://toxmap.nlm.nih.gov/toxmap/download.html), n = 804 Cumulative values 1988 to 2016
Industrial land use Tax parcel data for each jurisdiction, coded for land use, n = 321,405 2011
Lead from housing Structures built prior to 1978, n = 922,165 Compiled in 2020, includes age of all structures