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Table 1 Study characteristics and measurement of economic abuse

From: Examining the impact of economic abuse on survivors of intimate partner violence: a scoping review

Author (Publication year) Study location Sample Nature of study Measurement of economic abuse Economic abuse prevalence rate
Adams & Beeble (2019) [20] United States Women receiving services from DV and SA service agencies
(n = 94)
Survey data collected as part of a larger, longitudinal evaluation of an advocacy intervention SEA
(28 items)
Not reported
Adams et al. (2008) [2] United States Women receiving services from DV service agencies
(n = 103)
Cross-sectional survey focused on validating a measurement tool for EA SEA
(28 items)
99%
(since relationship began)
Adams et al. (2015) [3] United States Women receiving services from DV and SA service agencies
(n = 93)
Survey data collected as part of a larger, longitudinal evaluation of an advocacy intervention SEA
(28 items)
All reported some form of EA at baseline
(since relationship began)
Adams et al. (2020) [21] United States Women receiving services from DV service agencies
(n = 248)
Cross-sectional survey focused on validating a measurement tool for EA SEA2
(14 items)
96%
(at least one EA tactic since relationship began)
Adams et al. (2020) [22] United States Women who called the National DV Hotline
(n = 1823)
Cross-sectional convenience sample using brief surveys Three (3) items measuring coerced debt 52%
(lifetime coerced debt)
Antai et al. (2014) [23] Philippines Women between the ages of 15–49 living in Philippines
(n = 9316)
Cross-sectional representative sample using surveys Four (4) items measuring EA Not reported
Bulut et al. (2017) [24] Turkey Postpartum women receiving care in a family practice clinic
(n = 128)
Cross-sectional convenience sample using surveys Not indicated 3%
(timeframe unclear)
Cardenas et al. (2021) [25] United States Latina women receiving services from DV agencies
(n = 200)
Survey data collected as part of a larger, longitudinal evaluation of a financial empowerment program SEA-12
(12 items)
Not reported
Davila et al. (2021) [26] United States Latina women receiving services from DV agencies
(n = 245)
Cross-sectional study using data collected from a longitudinal evaluation of a financial empowerment program SEA-12
(12 items)
Not reported
Gibbs et al. (2018) [27] South Africa Women aged 18–30 living in informal settlements
(n = 680)
Cross-sectional study using data collected from a longitudinal evaluation of a DV intervention Four (4) items measuring EA 52%
(at least one EA tactic in past 12 months)
Gottlieb & Mahabir (2021) [28] United States Mothers interviewed in hospitals after giving birth
(n = 3515)
Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the FFCWB Study Two (2) items measuring financial control and work/school sabotage One-third of sample
(since the birth of their child)
Gul et al. (2020) [29] Turkey Mothers of children referred for pediatric health services
(n = 336)
Cross-sectional convenience sample using surveys One (1) item measuring EA 12.5%
(since relationship began)
Gurkan et al. (2020) [30] Turkey Pregnant women presenting to the antenatal polyclinic
(n = 370)
Cross-sectional convenience sample using surveys One (1) item from DV Against Women Screening Form 25.9%
(during pregnancy)
Haj-Yahia (2000) [31] Palestine Married Palestinian women
(n = 1334)
Cross-sectional systematic random sample using surveys Two (2) items measuring financial control 44%
(past 12 months)
Hamdan-Mansour et al. (2011) [32] Jordan Ever married women over the age of 18 living in villages in southern Jordan
(n = 807)
Cross-sectional study using stratified random sampling to survey participants Marital Abuse Scale
(5 items)
Not reported
Huang et al. (2013) [33] United States Mothers interviewed in hospitals following giving birth
(n = 2107)
Secondary analysis of longitudinal data collected from the FFCWB Study Two (2) items measuring financial control and work/school sabotage 11.8% at baseline; 13.5% at Year 3;
15.1% at Year 5
(past 12 months)
Huang et al. (2015) [34] United States Mothers interviewed in hospitals following giving birth
(n = 2410)
Secondary analysis of longitudinal data collected from the FFCWB Study Two (2) items measuring financial control and work/school sabotage 28%
(when their child was one or three years old)
Jewkes et al. (2003) [35] South Africa Women between the ages of 18–49 living in South Africa
(n = 1164)
Cross-sectional representative sample using surveys Items measuring financial control
(number of items unclear)
Not reported
Kanougiya et al. (2021) [36] India Ever-married women between ages 18–49 living in two informal settlements
(n = 4906)
Cross-sectional systematic random sample 15 items measuring EA 23%
(at least one form over their lifetime)
Kapiga et al. (2017) [37] Tanzania Ever partnered women participating in microfinance loan groups
(n = 1021)
Cross-sectional baseline survey from a cluster RCT WHO Violence Against Women Instrument
(3 items)
34%
(past 12 months)
Johnson (2021) [38] United States Pregnant women in a relationship
(n = 183)
Cross-sectional convenience sample using surveys recruited via research panel service SEA2
(14 items)
Not reported
Nicholson et al. (2018) [39] United States Mothers interviewed in hospitals birth
(n = 2389)
Secondary analysis of longitudinal data collected from the FFCWB Study Two (2) items measuring financial control and work/school sabotage 28%
(lifetime at Year 1 and Year 3)
Postmus et al. (2012) [40] United States Mothers interviewed in hospitals following giving birth
(n = 2305)
Secondary analysis of longitudinal data collected from the FFCWB Study Two (2) items measuring financial control and work/school sabotage Not reported
Postmus et al. (2012) [4] United States Women receiving services from DV programs
(n = 120)
Cross-sectional study using data collected from a longitudinal evaluation of a financial empowerment program SEA
(28 items)
94.2%
(in current relationship or last 12 months of most recent relationship)
Postmus et al. (2021) [41] Cambodia, China, Papua New Guinea,
Sri Lanka
Women between the ages of 18–49
(n = 3105)
Cross-sectional study using multi-stage cluster sampling to survey participants Four (4) items measuring EA 35.6%
(lifetime)
Sauber et al. (2020) [42] United States Female DV survivors recruited through agencies providing services to survivors, as well as online
(n = 147)
Cross-sectional convenience sample using surveys SEA-12
(12 items)
95%
(at least one experience in the past 6 months)
Stockl & Penhale (2015) [43] Germany Women between the ages of 16–86 who received a letter inviting them to participate
(n = 10,264)
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional nationally representative data collected as part of the Health, Well-Being and Personal Safety of Women in Germany study Items measuring financial control (number of items unclear) 12% of participants 16–49;
14% 50–65; 13% 66–86
(occurred with current partner)
Stylianou (2018) [44] United States Women receiving services from DV agencies
(n = 457)
Cross-sectional study using data collected from a longitudinal evaluation of a financial empowerment program SEA-12
(12 items)
93%
(past 12 months)
Tenkorang & Owusu (2019) [45] Ghana Ever-married women aged 18 and older living within selected communities
(n = 2289)
Cross-sectional study using multi-stage simple random sampling to survey participants Seven (7) items measuring employment sabotage, economic exploitation, and economic depravation 8.5% employment sabotage;
24% economic exploitation; 42% economic deprivation
(timeframe unclear)
Usta et al. (2007) [46] Lebanon Women seeking services in selected health clinics
(n = 1415)
Cross-sectional convenience sample using surveys One (1) item measuring EA 12%
(lifetime)
Voth Schrag (2015) [47] United States Mothers interviewed in hospitals following giving birth
(n = 2775)
Secondary analysis of longitudinal data collected from the FFCWB Study Two (2) items measuring financial control and work/school sabotage 14%
(timeframe unclear)
Voth Schrag et al. (2019) [48] United States Women enrolled in community college
(n = 435)
Cross-sectional study using simple random sample to survey participants SEA-12
(12 items)
Not reported
Voth Schrag et al. (2020) [49] United States Women enrolled in community college
(n = 435)
Cross-sectional study using simple random sample to survey participants SEA-12
(12 items)
43.8%
(at least one form of EA in past 12 months)
Yau et al. (2020) [50] Hong Kong Adults between the ages of 35–60
(n = 504)
Cross-sectional stratified systematic sample using surveys Chinese
SEA-12
(C-SEA-12; 12 items)
36.5%
(past 12 months)
Yunus et al. (2017) [51] Malaysia Adults aged 60 or older living within selected districts
(n = 1927)
Longitudinal study using multi-stage cluster sampling strategy and administrative records Adapted version of the Conflict Tactics Scale for Elder Abuse 8.1%
(experienced since turning age 60)
  1. DV Domestic violence, SA Sexual assault, EA Economic abuse, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, FFCWB Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, SEA Scale of Economic Abuse, RCT Randomized controlled trial, WHO World Health Organization