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Table 1 Individual characteristics and deprivation indices, overall and by outcome (preterm birth (PTB), small for gestational age (SGA)), Metropolitan France, National Perinatal survey, 2010–1016

From: Ability of municipality-level deprivation indices to capture social inequalities in perinatal health in France: A nationwide study using preterm birth and small for gestational age to illustrate their relevance

  Total PTB SGA
% n % n pa % n pa
N   26,238 7.1 1845   11.1 2908  
Maternal age (years)      0.004     < 0.001
  < 20 1.9 508 11.0 55   15.9 79  
  [20–25[ 13.1 3421 7.4 253   13.3 453  
  [25–30[ 32.4 8498 6.9 586   10.9 920  
  [30–35[ 32.4 8491 6.7 566   10.2 861  
  ≥ 35 20.2 5296 7.3 384   11.3 595  
Educational level       < 0.001     < 0.001
 Lower secondary education (ISCED 0–2) 25.7 6613 8.3 545   13.6 893  
 Upper secondary education (ISCED 3) 20.5 5270 7.1 371   10.9 573  
 post-secondary non-tertiary, short cycle tertiary (ISCED 4–5) 20.6 5300 6.7 356   10.3 545  
 university Bachelors’ degree equivalent or higher (ISCED 6–8) 33.2 8532 5.8 490   9.6 816  
Household income (€)       < 0.001     < 0.001
  < 1000 9.7 2442 8.9 215   15.5 375  
  [1000–2000[ 23.1 5786 7.3 421   12.0 688  
  [2000–3000[ 29.2 7317 6.8 498   10.8 790  
  ≥ 3000 38.0 9531 5.5 521   9.4 890  
Individual deprivation index       < 0.001     < 0.001
 0 78.8 20,322 6.4 1299   10.3 2078  
 1 10.6 2725 8.1 221   12.7 345  
 2 6.6 1691 8.3 139   13.7 229  
  ≥ 3 4.1 1064 8.8 93   16.4 173  
Previous PTB       < 0.001     < 0.001
 No 96.3 24,522 6.4 1574   10.9 2653  
 Yes 3.7 938 23.4 219   18.2 170  
Previous SGA       < 0.001     < 0.001
 No 96.6 24,569 6.5 1660   10.5 2580  
 Yes 3.4 872 15.2 132   27.6 240  
Parity       < 0.001     < 0.001
 No 57.1 14,917 6.5 962   8.9 1327  
 Yes 42.9 11,232 7.8 875   14.0 1567  
BMI before pregnancy (kg/m2)       < 0.001     < 0.001
  < 18.5 7.8 1983 8.7 173   17.1 338  
 18.5–24 62.9 15,873 6.3 999   11.1 1749  
 25–29.9 18.5 4677 1.2 304   9.4 438  
  ≥ 30 10.8 2718 7.7 208   9.0 243  
Maternal birth country      0.0004    0.01
 France 81.7 21,075 6.6 1377   11.2 2351  
 Other European 3.9 1001 6.4 64   9.6 95  
 North Africa 7.0 1814 7.5 136   9.0 162  
 Sub-Saharan Africa 4.4 1147 9.4 107   12.3 141  
 Other 3.0 765 8.8 67   10.3 78  
Smoking (number of cigarettes/day during the third trimester)      0.02     < 0.0001
 0 83.5 21,543 6.6 1428   9.3 2002  
 1–9 12.1 3118 7.4 231   19.1 592  
  ≥ 10 4.4 1133 8.4 95   21.6 243  
Cannabis consumption          < 0.0001
 No 98.4 24,907 6.5 1639   10.8 2679  
 Yes 1.6 392 9.5 37   21.5 83  
Other adverse obstetric history       < 0.0001     < 0.0001
 No 92.2 23,547 6.3 1476   10.4 2445  
 Yes 7.8 1979 16.4 324   19.2 379  
Urban–Rural status of munipalities      0.001    0.04
 Isolated rural with very low density 3.1 744 6.3 47   10.5 78  
 Isolated rural with low density 10.4 2536 6.7 169   12.8 324  
 Rural with low relationship with an employment hub 9.2 2244 5.6 125   10.2 227  
 Rural with strong relationship with an employment hub 10.4 2535 6.8 172   10.3 261  
 Suburban (intermediate density) 26.8 6520 6.9 446   11.2 727  
 Urban centre (highly urban) 40.0 9712 7.9 767   11.3 1087  
FDep (quintile)      0.03    0.02
 Q1 20.06 5264 6.3 329   10.3 541  
 Q2 19.73 5176 6.8 349   11.0 566  
 Q3 20.02 5254 7.2 378   10.6 553  
 Q4 19,73 5178 7.2 370   11.8 606  
 Q5 20,45 5366 7.8 419   12.0 642  
FEDI (quintile)       < 0.0001    0.03
 Q1 19.99 5245 6.0 312   10.2 530  
 Q2 19.94 5231 6.5 343   10.8 560  
 Q3 20.02 5252 7.0 370   11.1 582  
 Q4 20.04 5259 6.7 353   11.8 617  
 Q5 20.01 5251 9.1 474   11.9 619  
  1. aChi2 test