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Table 2 Macro- and micronutrient intakes for children aged 4 to 13 years in the study sample

From: Food and nutrient intake of school-aged children in Lebanon and their adherence to dietary guidelines and recommendations

Nutrient Nutrient intake DRI1 (AI/EAR/AMDR) % DRI compliance
Total sample (n = 771) 4-8y 9-13y 4 to 13 years (n = 771) 4 to 8 years (n = 390) 9 to 13 years (n = 381)
Mean ± SE Median (P25, P75)  < EAR/AMDR  > AI/AMDR  < EAR/AMDR  > AI/AMDR  < EAR/AMDR  > AI/AMDR
Energy (kcal/d) 1804.1 ± 27.3 1692.0 (1268.1, 2240.4)
Macronutrients
 Total Fat (g/d) 80.3 ± 1.5 73.6 (50.5, 103.3)
 Saturated fat (g/d) 21.5 ± 0.5 18.8 (11.6, 27.8)
 Carbohydrate (g/d) 222.2 ± 3.6 210.2 (148.4, 274.4) 100 100 8.0 10.3 a 5.8 b
 Total Sugar (g/d) 77.6 ± 1.8 69.3 (42.2, 100.2)
 Added Sugars (g/d) 51.2 ± 1.6 41.7 (21.2, 71.4) 25 a 25 a 29.1 70.9 33.6 a 66.4 a 24.4 b 75.6 b
 Dietary fiber (g/d) 14.2 ± 0.3 12.3 (8.3, 18.4) 25 31 (B)-26 (G) 7.7 7.2 8.1
 Protein (g/d) 53.6 ± 1.0 48.4 (35.1, 67.0) 0.76 g/Kg 0.76 g/Kg 12.1 6.4 c 17.9 d
 Total Fat (% of EI) 39.2 ± 0.3 39.7 (34.3, 45.1) 25–35% 25–35% 7.1 71.3 7.2 69.7 7.1 73
 Saturated fat (% of EI) 10.6 ± 0.2 9.9 (7.1, 13.5)  < 8%†  < 8%† 67.8 68.2 67.5
 Carbohydrate (% of EI) 49.8 ± 0.3 49.5 (43.5, 55.3) 45–65% 45–65% 30.2 6.1 26.7 a 7.4 a 33.9 b 4.7 b
 Total Sugar (% of EI) 17.4 ± 0.3 16.6 (11.4, 22.3)
 Added Sugar (% of EI) 11.2 ± 0.3 10.0 (5.9, 15.7)
  Protein (% of EI) 12.2 ± 0.2 11.5 (9.1, 14.3) 10–30% 10–30% 33.9 0.9 32.8 0.8 34.9 1.0
Micronutrients
 Vitamin C (mg/d) 70.5 ± 2.6 47.8 (23.8, 93.7) 22 39 31.7 25.1 c 38.3 d
 Thiamin (mg/d) 1.2 ± 0.0 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 0.5 0.7 14.7 10.0 c 19.4 d
 Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.1 ± 0.0 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 0.5 0.8 21.8 13.6 c 30.2 d
 Niacin (mg/d) 14.9 ± 0.3 13.3 (8.9, 18.7) 6 9 16.6 14.4 18.9
 Vitamin B-6 (mg/d) 1.2 ± 0.0 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.5 0.8 20.5 15.4 c 25.7 d
 Folate (μg DFE/d) 238.0 ± 6.3 194.5 (116.3, 311.5) 160 250 52.9 42.0 c 64.0 d
 Vitamin B-12 (μg/d) 2.2 ± 0.2 1.5 (0.6, 2.6) 1 1.5 44.6 39.7 a 49.6 b
 Calcium (mg/d) 639.0 ± 14.3 553.2 (363.0, 830.9) 800 1100 81.3 76.1 c 86.6 d
 Phosphorus (mg/d) 795.2 ± 13.4 747.3 (531.0, 1005.9) 405 1055 43.8 16.1 c 72.2 d
 Magnesium (mg/d) 213.2 ± 3.6 197.8 (148.0, 260.9) 110 200 30.5 14.6 c 46.7 d
 Vitamin D (μg/d) 1.4 ± 0.1 0.5 (0.1, 2.0) 10 10 99.4 99.2 99.5
 Vitamin A (μg RAE/d) 530.8 ± 25.0 348.0 (177.0, 615.1) 275 445 (B)-420 (G) 69.5 60.3 c 79.0 d
 Vitamin K (μg/d) 134.9 ± 7.6 71.3 (29.2, 151.7) 55 60 56.2 54.6 57.7
 Iron (mg/d) 10.3 ± 0.2 9.0 (5.8, 13.2) 4.1 5.9 (B)-5.7 (G) 20.0 16.4 a 23.6 b
 Zinc (mg/d) 6.6 ± 0.1 5.8 (4.1, 8.4) 4 7 41.1 26.7 c 55.9 d
 Sodium (mg/d) 2050.9 ± 41.5 1875.3 (1209.0, 2586.6) 1000 1200 79.9 80.3 79.5
  Potassium (mg/d) 2103.5 ± 38.4 1951.7 (1354.2, 2706.1) 2300 2500 (B)-2300 (G) 34.4 31.3 37.5
  1. 1DRIs in bold are EARs and those in Italic are AMDRs
  2. WHO upper limit for saturated fat (8% of energy intake) for children above 2 years of age (WHO, 2008)
  3. *AHA recommendation for added sugars
  4. a and b indicate age differences in DRI compliance using chi-square test at p < 0.05
  5. c and d indicate age differences in DRI compliance using chi-square test at p < 0.001