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Table 4 Odds ratio (95% of confidence interval) – obtained from binary logistic regression analysis – showing the influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on modern contraceptive use among currently married women aged 15–49 years in Punjab and Manipur, 2015–16

From: Comparative analysis of contraceptive use in Punjab and Manipur: exploring beyond women’s education and empowerment

  Punjab Manipur
Model I Model II Model I Model II
Years of schooling
 No schooling (Ref.)
   < 10 years 0.67 (0.49, 0.91)** 0.74 (0.53, 1.05) 1.19 (0.65, 2.17) 1.39 (0.72, 2.70)
  10–12 years 0.44 (0., 0.64)*** 0.64 (0.40, 1.03)** 0.87 (0.41, 1.82) 1.13 (0.47, 2.73)
  12 + years 0.52 (0.35, 0.76)*** 0.87 (0.53, 1.40)** 0.85 (0.40, 1.81) 1.16 (0.47, 2.88)
Women autonomy
 Low (Ref.)
  Medium 1.88 (1.41, 2.50)** 1.77 (1.29, 2.42)** 1.45 (0.90, 2.34) 1.26 (0.74, 2.14)
  High 1.70 (1.31, 2.20)*** 1.45 (1.03, 1.94)** 1.61 (1.07, 3.67)** 1.28 (0.73, 2.25)
Age of women
 15–24 years (Ref.)
  25–34 years   1.92 (1.28, 2.87)**   2.03 (0.79, 5.19)
  35–49 years   1.69 (1.09, 2.64)**   1.21 (0.47, 3.16)
Parity
 0–1 child (Ref.)
  2 children   3.29 (2.34, 4.64)***   4.28 (2.30, 7.19)***
  3 + children   2.62 (1.73, 3.96)***   4.70 (2.36, 9.35)***
Desire for more children
 No (Ref.)
  Yes   0.59 (0.41, 0.84)**   0.89 (0.52, 1.51)
Currently working
 No (Ref.)
  Yes   0.81 (0.59, 1.13)   1.08 (0.71, 1.66)
Place of residence
 Urban (Ref.)
  Rural   1.27 (0.96, 1.68)**   0.96 (0.62, 1.48)
Household wealth index
 Poor (Ref.)
  Middle   1.26 (0.57, 2.76)   1.60 (0.98, 2.61)*
  Rich   0.97 (0.46, 2.06)   1.22 (0.67, 2.23)
Religion
 Hindu (Ref.)
  Non-Hindu   0.99 (0.76, 1.29)   1.19 (0.71, 1.99)
Caste
 Scheduled Caste (Ref.)
  Scheduled Tribes   1.00   0.40 (0.18, 0.89)**
  Other Backward Class   0.79 (0.57, 1.10)   0.49 (0.22, 1.07)*
  Others   1.06 (0.78, 1.45)   0.79 (0.39, 1.59)
Husband migration status
 Living together (Ref.)
  Staying elsewhere   0.19 (0.12, 0.30)***   0.38 (0.13, 1.11)*
  1. Ref.: Reference category
  2. Figures in parenthesis are 95% confidence intervals; ***p<0.001; **p<0.05; *p<0.10