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Table 1 Barriers to COVID-19 testing organized by type of delay

From: Barriers to and strategies to address COVID-19 testing hesitancy: a rapid scoping review

Planning barriers

Process barriers

Outcomes barriers

•Cost of Testing

•Health literacy


•Testing criteria (changes in testing criteria)

•Health status

•Trust in health system

•Availability of testing sites

•Waiting times (availability of human resources, testing supplies)

•Infrastructure features of testing sites

•Time delay in results (including laboratory capacity)

•Test properties (including pain, length of test)

•Test accuracy/sensitivity (false positives)

•Safety of test site (chance of infection)

•Trust in the process


•Personal cost (cost of isolation, positive test results: work, cost related to care etc.)

•Consequences on employment

•Health consequences