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Table 3 Prevalence of coexisting forms of malnutrition worldwide (N = 20)

From: A review of the prevalence, trends, and determinants of coexisting forms of malnutrition in neonates, infants, and children

Author name (Year) Country The burden of various types of coexisting forms of malnutrition in neonates, infants, and children
Coexistence of undernutrition Contrasting forms of malnutrition Coexistence with MRM
CWS
(n = 9)
CUS
(n = 7)
CUW
(n = 5)
CUWS
(n = 3)
CSO
(n = 14)
COM
(n = 2)
Global Prevalence of CFM (n = 3)
 Global Nutrition Report (2018) Global 5%AS
2.9%AF
0.2%E
    0.8% USA
2.5% E + AF
 Global Nutrition Report (2019) Global 3.6% 1.9%
 Global Nutrition Report (2021) Global Figure-5     Figure-5  
CFM prevalence in Asia (n = 9)
 Zhang, et al., (2016) China 5%
 Mgongo, et al., (2017) Tanzania 12% 33% 21% 12%
 Zhang, et al., (2018) China 18%
 Islam & Biswas, (2019) Bangladesh 18% 5.5% 5.7%
 Varghese & Stein (2019) India 3.3%
(IQR: 2.1 to 5.4) α
   0.7%
(IQR: 0.4 to 1.2) α
A + OW =0.8% (IQR: 0.5 to 1.3) α
A+ UW = 11.3% (IQR: 8.5 to 13.8) α
A + S = 15.9% (IQR: 12.9 to 20.2) α
 Yasmin, et al., (2019) Indonesia 7.5%
 Benedict, et al., (2020) Thailand 1.6%  
 Zhang, et al., (2021) China 0.2% 1.7% 2.3% 0.4%
 Khaliq, et al., (2021) Pakistan 17.2% ¥
14.3%¥¥
2.9% ¥
3.1%¥¥
4.4% ¥
2.7%¥¥
6.1% ¥
1.4%¥¥
CFM prevalence in Africa (n = 6)
 Kinyoki, et al., (2016) Somalia 9% 29% 20%    
 Saaka & Galaa (2016) Ghana 1.4%      
 Fongar et al., (2019) Kenya 1% 19%**
 Garanne, et al., (2019) Senegal 6.%
 Farah, et al., (2021) Ethiopia 2% (95% CI: 1.6 to 2.5)
 Roba, et al., (2021) Ethiopia 5.8%
CFM prevalence in South and Central America (n = 2)
 Florencio, et al., (2001) Brazil 8.7%
2.7%*
0%
30%*
 Fernald & Neufeld (2007) Mexico 5 to 10%
  1. Where, AS Asia, AF Africa, E Europe, USA United States of America, E-AF Europe and Africa, * = Adolescents, ** = Adult, CWS Coexistence of wasting with stunting, A + OW Coexistence of Anaemia with Overweight/Obesity, A + UW Coexistence of Anaemia with underweight, A + S Coexistence of Anaemia with Stunting, α Median prevalence of malnutrition, IQR Interquartile range, ¥ = the Survey year 2012–2013, ¥¥ = Survey year 2017–2018, CUS Coexistence of underweight with stunting, CUW Coexistence of underweight with wasting, CUWS Coexistence of underweight with stunting and with wasting, CSO Coexistence of overweight/obesity with stunting, COM Coexistence of overweight/obesity with micronutrient related malnutrition