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Table 5 Comparison of salient points from qualitative and quantitative results

From: The influence of clinic care on perceptions and knowledge of non-communicable diseases and physical activity from a low-resourced community: a mixed-method study

Health belief model constructs Integrated qualitative results and quantitative results
Baseline results
 Individual perceptions Secondary analysis of qualitative data and quantitative data reveal that perceived knowledge concurs with actual knowledge, as participants perceived increased risk to NCDs because of stress associated with poor-economic factors. Participants know that stress is the most important cause of heart disease
 Modifying factors Quantitative determination reveals a high prevalence of NCD risk factors among participants. However, participants have limited knowledge of NCD risk factors. Participants reported knowing about NCDs after being diagnosed with an NCD condition. Participants scored high on knowledge of PA; on the contrary, they perceived a lack of knowledge for PA. Participants perceived encouragement from medical professionals
 Likelihood of action Participants engage in low-intensity PA levels. Perceived benefits of PA engagement are socialising, stress management, and improved body function. Perceived barriers encapsulate discouragement by others in the community, low energy levels, and lack of knowledge about the type of activities to engage in
12 weeks results
 Individual perceptions Participants perceived increased risk to NCDs because of stress and modern lifestyle. They knew that stress is the most important cause of heart disease. Participants perceived the seriousness of NCDs as disease complications due to uncontrolled NCDs and NCD deaths. Most participants (80%) knew that heart disease is the leading cause of death in the USA
 Modifying factors Results reveal a prevalence of NCD risk factors from biological measures. Participants perceived a lack of knowledge about the causes of NCDs. Survey findings congruently show low knowledge of NCD risk factors, participants particularly lacked knowledge about the difference between healthy fat and unhealthy fat. Knowledge of PA scored high; however, participants perceived a lack of knowledge about PA. Respondents report awareness from media to take up PA
 Likelihood of action Objective measures show that participants mainly engaged in low-intensity PA levels. They perceive the benefit that PA engagement assists in stress reduction and that PA forms part of disease management. However, cultural barriers to PA engagement abound
24 weeks results
 Individual perceptions Participants perceived increased risk to NCDs as “tycoons’ sicknesses” because of lifestyle changes and stress. Most (97%) participants believe smokers are likely to die of lung cancer rather than heart disease. Also, 97% of participants believe stress is the most important cause of heart disease. Perceived seriousness about NCDs was ambiguous; some participants perceive that NCDs are serious conditions and can be fatal, while others perceive that NCDs are long-duration conditions and less likely to be fatal
 Modifying factors Participants demonstrate poor NCD knowledge, they scored below average on heart disease knowledge. They perceive a lack of knowledge about the aetiology of NCDs, they knew family members diagnosed with an NCD condition. Participants scored high on the PA knowledge survey. Though results reveal confusion about the role of PA in disease management among participants
 Likelihood of action Perceived benefits of PA include improved functional ability and stress management. Perceived barriers were lack of skill for PA and cultural barriers to PA