Skip to main content

Table 3 The association between personal characteristics and COVID-19 disease prevention behavior

From: Explaining interpersonal differences in COVID-19 disease prevention behavior based on the health belief model and collective resilience theory: a cross-sectional study from Bolivia

Independent variables β
Control variables:
 Intercept -.233
 Education .001
 Dominant climate in region of birth (1: polar; 2: temperate; 3: tropical) (level 2a) .033
 Population density in region of birth (level 2a) .021
 Income-oriented work (1: working with income; 0: otherwise) (level 2b) -.041
Vulnerability:
 Chronic health problems -.073*
 (Chronic health problems)2 (H1a: +) .026*
 Age (H1b: +) .131***
 Female (vs. male) gender (1: female; 0: male) (H1c: -) .092***
 Emotional burden (worries) (H1d: +) .055†
 Emotional burden (depression) (H1e: -) -.076*
Attitudes toward disease prevention:
 Attitude toward social distancing (H2a: +) .187***
 Attitude toward lockdown (H2b: +) .106***
 Attitude toward lockdown enforcement (H2c: +) .141***
 Trust in public institutions (H2d: +) .055*
Social orientation:
 Horizontal individualism (belief in self-determined fate) (H3a: +) .059*
 Vertical individualism (belief in competition with others) (H3a: +) .062*
 Horizontal collectivism (belief in helping others) (H3b: +) .077**
Covariance parameters:
 Residual at level 1 (person) .799***
 Residual at level 2a (region of birth) .547
 Residual at level 2b (occupation) .001
Fit statistics:
 HLM pseudo R2 .201
 Sample size 1231
  1. p < .1; *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001 (two-sided p-values). Effects of standardized variables. Cross-classified hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) (level 1: person; level 2a: region; level 2b: occupation)