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Table 2 Treatment effects on substance use and expenditures

From: Unconditional cash transfers and maternal substance use: findings from a randomized control trial of low-income mothers with infants in the U.S.

  Maternal Substance Use Behavior Family Substance Expenditure/Purchase per Week
  Alcohol and Cigarette Use Index Alcohol
Use
Cigarette
Use
Opioid
Use
Alcohol and Cigarette
(dollars)
Alcohol
(dollars)
Cigarettes
(dollars)
Cigarettes
(N packs)
A. Pre-pandemic Sample
  Low-cash gift group mean
(standard deviation)
1.112
(1.597)
0.475
(0.649)
0.635
(1.331)
0.076
(0.467)
12.435
(26.401)
3.412
(9.267)
8.976
(22.958)
1.288
(3.328)
  Cash-gift treatment effect
(standard error)
0.057
(0.118)
0.031
(0.055)
0.028
(0.096)
-0.031
(0.025)
0.050
(2.105)
1.174
(0.914)
-1.123
(1.737)
-0.144
(0.251)
  Effect size 0.036 0.047 0.021 -0.067 0.002 0.127 -0.049 -0.043
  p-value, unadjusted 0.628 0.580 0.769 0.211 0.981 0.199 0.518 0.566
  p-value, adjusted 0.826 0.826 0.826 0.552 0.980 0.395 0.69 0.713
  N 597 597 598 597 593 595 595 595
B. Full Sample
  Low-cash gift group mean
(standard deviation)
     9.997
(22.542)
3.432
(9.297)
6.582
(19.224)
0.925
(2.632)
  Cash-gift treatment effect
(standard error)
     0.394
(1.493)
0.668
(0.705)
-0.296
(1.204)
-0.039
(0.160)
  Effect size      0.017 0.072 -0.015 -0.015
  p-value, unadjusted      0.792 0.344 0.806 0.809
  p-value, adjusted      0.957 0.631 0.957 0.957
  N      920 922 927 927
  Preregistered hypothesis YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
  1. Notes: Alcohol use, cigarette use, and opioid use are maternal self-report measures scored on a 0–4 point frequency ordinal scale (0: never in last year; 1: less than 1 time per month; 2: several times per month; 3: several times per week; 4: everyday). The Alcohol and Cigarette Use Index is a preregistered additive index of alcohol use and cigarette use, which ranges from 0–8. Adjusted p-values are Westfall and Young adjustments for multiple hypothesis testing. For the adjustment, substance use measures are placed into one family and expenditure measures are placed into one family. Effect size is the treatment effect divided by the standard deviation of low-cash gift group. + p < 0.10; * p < 0.05