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Table 5 Risk factors for experiencing catastrophic costs due to TB among 777 TB-affected households in Tanzania

From: Economic burden of tuberculosis in Tanzania: a national survey of costs faced by tuberculosis-affected households

Variable Total
n = 777
Number and proportion of incurred catastrophic cost n (%) P-valuea OR univariable (95%CI) aORb
multilevel (95%CI)
Age group
 0–14 73 34 (46.6) 0.223 Reference  
 15–24 86 30 (34.9)   0.61 (0.32–1.16)  
 25–34 154 63 (40.9)   0.79 (0.45–1.39)  
 35–44 164 73 (44.5)   0.92 (0.53–1.60)  
 45–54 139 65 (46.8)   1.01 (0.57–1.78)  
 55–64 82 43 (52.4)   1.26 (0.67–2.39)  
  > 65 79 41 (51.9)   1.24 (0.65–2.35)  
Sex
 Female 289 126 (43.6) 0.62 Reference  
 Male 488 223 (45.7)   1.09 (0.81–1.46)  
Drug susceptibility statusc
 DS-TB 752 329 (43.8) 0.001 Reference Reference
 MDR-TB 25 20 (80.0)   5.14 (2.06–15.58) 3.36 (1.20–10.92)
Treatment history
 New 694 314 (45.2) 0.67 Reference  
 Retreatment 83 35 (42.2)   0.88 (0.55–1.39)  
Recorded HIV statusc
 Negative 528 237 (44.9) 0.923 Reference  
 Positive 234 106 (45.3)   1.02 (0.75–1.38)  
 Unknown 15 6 (40.0)   0.82 (0.27–2.30)  
Income quintile
 Wealthiest 155 69 (44.5) 0.64 Reference  
 Fourth 154 66 (42.9)   0.93 (0.60–1.47)  
 Third 108 43 (39.8)   0.82 (0.50–1.36)  
 Second 192 93 (48.4)   1.17 (0.77–1.79)  
 Poorest 168 78 (46.4)   1.08 (0.70–1.68)  
Hospitalizations during current phase
 No 717 292 (40.7)  < 0.001 Reference Reference
 Yes 60 57 (95.0)   27.65 (10.10–114.13) 34.97 (12.50–146.11)
Treatment modality
 Self-administration 432 195 (45.1)  < 0.001 Reference Reference
 Home-based DOT 320 133 (41.6)   0.86 (0.64–1.16) 0.90 (0.63–1.27)
 Facility-based DOT 25 21 (84.0)   6.38 (2.38–22.15) 7.19 (2.42–26.56)
Insurance
 No 683 311 (45.5) 0.41 Reference  
 Yes 94 38 (40.4)   0.81 (0.52–1.25)  
Delay before diagnosis
 No delay 683 301 (44.1) 0.24 Reference  
 Delayed 94 48 (51.1)   1.32 (0.86–2.04)  
Settingsd
 Urban 371 136 (36.7)  < 0.001 Reference Reference
 Semi-urban 107 44 (41.1)   1.21 (0.77–1.87) 1.58 (0.98–2.53)
 Rural 299 169 (56.5)   2.25 (1.65–3.07) 2.57 (1.82–3.66)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, OR Odds ratio, Aor Adjusted OR, DS-TB Drug-susceptible TB, MDR-TB Multi-drug resistant TB, DOT Directly observed therapy
  2. aChi-square test
  3. bBased on the final logistic regression model selected with stepwise backward selection which was guided by Akaike’s information criterion (AIC)
  4. cMDR TB and HIV status of patients were retrieved from patients’ charts
  5. dDefinitions used in Tanzania for each setting:
  6. Urban: city of a region
  7. Semi-urban: township of a district
  8. Rural: village other than the township of district