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Table 4 Multilevel analysis of factors associated with MAD intake among children aged 6–23 months in Sub-Saharan Africa: based on 2010 to 2020 DHS

From: Minimum acceptable diet intake and its associated factors among children age at 6–23 months in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of the sub-Saharan Africa demographic and health survey

Variables Categories aModel 2 Model 3 Model 4
AOR [95% CI] AOR [95% CI] AOR [95% CI]
Age of women (years) 15–19 1.00 1.00
20–35 0.89 [0.79, 0.99]** 0.90 [0.78, 1.01]
36–49 1.01 [0.88, 1.13] 0.92 [0.82, 1.05]
Sex of household head Male 1.00 1.00
Female 0.93 [0.87, 1.00] 0.93[0.87, 1.01]
Educational attainment of women No education 1.00 1.00
Primery education 1.23 [1.14, 1.32]*** 1.09[1.01, 1.17]**
Secondary&above 1.68 [1.56, 1.82]*** 1.41 [1.30,1.54]***
Occupation of women Not worked 1.00 1.00
Worked 1.20 [1.13, 1.27]*** 1.25 [1.17,1.33]***
Marital status of mother Married 1.00 1.00
Not married 0.82 [0.77, 0.88]*** 0.79 [0.78,0.84]***
House hold family size 1–4 1.00 1.00
5–10 1.06 [0.99,1.13] 1.07 [0.99, 1.15]
> 11 1.12 [1.02,1.24]* 1.09 [0.97, 1.21]
Media exposure No 1.00 1.00
Yes 1.61 [1.51, 1.71]*** 1.55 [1.45,1.66]***
Wealth index Poorest 1.00 1.00
Poorer 1.12 [1.02, 1.22]* 1.13 [1.04, 1.24]*
Middle 1.26 [1.15, 1.37]*** 1.26 [1.15,1.38]***
Richer 1.43 [1.31, 1.57]*** 1.37 [1.25,1.51]***
Richest 2.11 [1.92, 2.31]*** 1.93 [1.73,2.15]***
Birth order <=3 1.00 1.00
> 3 0.98 [0.91, 1.04] 0.98 [0.91, 1.05]
Sex of child Male 1.00 1.00
Female 1.05 [1.00, 1.11] 1.05 [0.99, 1.10]
Age of child 6–8 1.00 1.00
9–11 1.00 [0.91, 1.10] 0.99 [0.90, 1.09]
12–23 1.35 [1.26, 1.46]*** 1.62 [1.50,1.75]***
Plurality of birth Single 1.00 1.00
Multiple 0.67 [0.55, 0.81]*** 0.68 [0.56,0.82]***
Current breast feeding No 1.00 1.00
Yes 1.99 [1.85, 2.15]*** 2.04 [1.89,2.21]***
Wanted pregnancy Wanted 1.00 1.00
Unwanted 0.92 [0.86, 0.97]** 0.90 [0.85,0.96]***
Place of delivery Home 1.00 1.00
Health institution 1.03[0.95, 1.09] 1.04 [0.98, 1.12]
ANC visit No ANC visit 1.00 1.00
At least one visit 1.65 [1.50, 1.81]*** 1.61[1.47, 1.77]***
Community level variables
 Residence Urban 1.00 1.00
Rural 0.55[0.52,0.58]*** 0.74 [0.69,0.79]***
 Region in SSA Central Africa 1.00 1.00
East Africa 1.71 [1.58,1.85]*** 1.35 [1.24,1.47]***
West Africa 1.17 [0.07,1.27]*** 1.05 [0.96, 1.15]
South Africa 1.05 [0.88, 1.24] 0.93 [0.76, 1.12]
 Country income level Lower 1.00 1.00
Lower middle 1.31 [1.24,1.40]*** 1.33[1.25,1.43]***
Upper middle 1.28 [1.12,1.45]*** 1.62[1.41,1.87]***
 Survey year 2010–2012 1.00 1.00
2013–2015   1.24[1.14,1.34]*** 0.98 [0.90, 1.07]
2016–2019   1.09 [1.02, 1.19]** 0.94 [0.86, 1.02]
 Community media usage Low 1.00 1.00
High 1.19[1.12,1.27]*** 0.99 [0.93, 1.07]
 Community women education Low 1.00 1.00
high 1.07 [1.00, 1.14]* 0.99 [0.92, 1.06]
  1. AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  2. aModel 1(null model) = the model which contain only with dependent variable and values expressed in Table 4
  3. *P-value < 0.05
  4. **P value < 0.01
  5. ***P value < 0.001