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Table 2 Association between alcohol abuse and the potential risk factors of solitary death for complete cases

From: Alcohol abuse as a potential risk factor of solitary death among people living alone: a cross-sectional study in Kyoto, Japan

  Solitary death, n (%) Proportion ratio (95% CI)  
Crude Age, Sex, Adjusted Adjusted*
Alcohol abuse 42/68 (61.8) 1.59 (1.22–2.07) 1.57 (1.19–2.06) 1.50 (1.12–2.00)
Non-alcohol abuse (ref) 65/167 (38.9) Ref Ref Ref
  1. CI confidence interval, ref reference; *Adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status, presence of psychiatric and noncommunicable diseases, existence of relatives, and activities of daily living