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Table 3 Stratified analysis for cardiometabolic health among never-smoking adult cancer survivors with secondhand smoke exposure compared to those without in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2018

From: Association of secondhand smoke exposure with cardiometabolic health in never-smoking adult cancer survivors: a population-based cross-sectional study

  Hypertension (2017 AHA/ACCa) General obesityb Abdominal obesityb Hyperlipidemiac Hypertriglyceridemiac Reduced
HDL-Cc
Impaired fasting glucose (ADA/WHOd)
Age
  < 65 y 1.60 (1.00–2.56)* 1.45 (0.85–2.45) 1.22 (0.76–1.94) 0.88 (0.53–1.46) 1.41 (0.79–2.51) 0.81 (0.52–1.26) 1.54 (0.92–2.56)
  ≥ 65 y 0.65 (0.32–1.30) 1.42 (0.74–2.75) 1.04 (0.55–1.97) 1.24 (0.65–2.37) 2.54 (1.26–5.12)* 2.17 (1.20–3.93)* 0.65 (0.35–1.20)
Sex
 Male 2.77 (0.99–7.75) 2.79 (0.79–9.88) 2.39 (0.48–12.08) 1.13 (0.17–7.55) 5.36 (1.38–20.74)* 2.85 (0.86–9.46) 0.86 (0.28–2.69)
 Female 1.22 (0.82–1.83) 1.27 (0.82–1.96) 1.07 (0.72–1.60) 0.96 (0.62–1.47) 1.37 (0.89–2.11) 0.98 (0.68–1.43) 1.07 (0.70–1.63)
Education level
 University/College 1.53 (0.88–2.66) 1.43 (0.79–2.58) 1.53 (0.88–2.65) 0.89 (0.50–1.58) 1.82 (0.97–3.40) 1.01 (0.61–1.64) 1.97 (1.06–3.67)
  ≤ High school 1.05 (0.60–1.83) 1.57 (0.87–2.83) 0.93 (0.53–1.64) 1.37 (0.73–2.57) 1.85 (1.02–3.33)* 1.05 (0.62–1.79) 0.67 (0.39–1.14)
Household income
 Upper half 1.51 (0.83–2.76) 1.24 (0.62–2.45) 1.08 (0.62–1.87) 1.71 (0.93–3.16) 1.94 (1.07–3.50)* 0.61 (0.35–1.06) 1.29 (0.70–2.38)
 Lower half 1.32 (0.80–2.20) 1.77 (1.06–2.96)* 1.43 (0.84–2.41) 0.71 (0.41–1.22) 1.41 (0.79–2.51) 1.92 (1.16–3.18)* 0.90 (0.52–1.56)
Occupation type
 Manager, professionals 1.99 (0.71–5.57) 0.69 (0.20–2.44) 1.08 (0.35–3.38) 0.71 (0.18–2.75) 2.10 (0.64–6.87) 0.88 (0.26–2.98) 0.98 (0.27–3.64)
 Manual labor 1.90 (0.97–3.72) 2.62 (1.38–4.97)* 1.46 (0.78–2.73) 1.11 (0.57–2.15) 1.68 (0.88–3.21) 1.20 (0.63–2.29) 1.69 (0.93–3.07)
 Unemployed 0.94 (0.56–1.58) 1.23 (0.69–2.18) 1.11 (0.66–1.88) 1.00 (0.57–1.72) 1.54 (0.85–2.76) 1.04 (0.63–1.71) 0.89 (0.54–1.47)
  1. Values above are presented as adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals computed from multiple logistic regression accounting for the sampling weights. Model 1 was adjusted for sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education level, household income, marital status, residential area, occupation type), health behavior (aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, alcohol consumption, total energy intake), and family history of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease or stroke). Interaction p-values for each outcome are noted in Supplemental Table 2
  2. Acronyms: AHA American Heart Association, ACC American College of Cardiology, BMI Body Mass Index, WC Waist Circumference, HDL-C High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, ADA American Diabetes Association, WHO World Health Organization, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, FSG Fasting Serum Glucose
  3. aDefined as SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or DBP ≥ 80 mmHg or taking antihypertensive drugs according to the 2017 AHA/ACC high blood pressure guidelines
  4. bGeneral obesity defined as BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 and abdominal obesity defined as WC ≥ 90 cm for men and WC ≥ 85 cm for women
  5. cHyperlipidemia defined as total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL or taking cholesterol lowering drugs; hypertriglyceridemia defined as triglyceride ≥ 200 mg/dL or taking cholesterol lowering drugs: reduced HDL-C defined as HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL for men and HDL-C ≤ 50 mg/dL for women
  6. dDefined as FSG of 110–125 mg/dL according to the ADA and WHO
  7. *p < 0.05