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Table 1 Characteristics of adult cancer survivors in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2018 by secondhand smoke exposure status

From: Association of secondhand smoke exposure with cardiometabolic health in never-smoking adult cancer survivors: a population-based cross-sectional study

  No Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Never-Smoking Adult Cancer Survivors
(N = 591)
Secondhand
Smoke Exposure in Never-Smoking Adult Cancer Survivors
(N = 239)
P-valuea
Age, mean (SE), years 59.4 (0.58) 54.6 (1.13)  < 0.001
Sex    0.015
 Male 52 (8.8) 27 (11.3)  
 Female 539 (91.2) 212 (88.7)  
Education level    0.462
 Elementary school 228 (38.7) 73 (30.5)  
 Middle School 83 (14.1) 39 (16.3)  
 High School 150 (25.5) 71 (29.7)  
  ≥ College/University 128 (21.7) 56 (23.4)  
Household income    0.045
 1Q 169 (28.6) 58 (24.3)  
 2Q 137 (23.2) 71 (29.7)  
 3Q 137 (23.2) 65 (27.2)  
 4Q 148 (76.7) 45 (23.3)  
Insurance type    0.003
 Self-employed insured 165 (27.9) 93 (38.9)  
 Employee insured 397 (67.2) 139 (58.2)  
 Medical aid 28 (4.7) 7 (2.9)  
Marital status    0.01
 Married 582 (98.5) 231 (96.7)  
 Single, widowed, divorced, separated 9 (1.5) 8 (3.4)  
Residential area    0.599
 Urban/Metropolitan 419 (70.9) 175 (73.2)  
 Rural 172 (29.1) 64 (26.8)  
Occupation type    0.034
 Manager, professionals 64 (10.8) 35 (14.6)  
 Manual labor 156 (26.4) 82 (34.3)  
 Unemployed 371 (62.8) 122 (51.1)  
Regular aerobic exerciseb 218 (36.9) 89 (37.2) 0.438
Muscle strengthening exercise    0.023
 None 489 (82.7) 179 (74.9)  
 1–2 times per week 32 (5.4) 29 (12.1)  
 3–4 times per week 36 (6.1) 10 (4.2)  
  ≥ 5 times per week 34 (5.8) 21 (8.8)  
Alcohol consumption     < 0.001
 None 448 (75.8) 146 (61.1)  
Habitual consumptionc 143 (24.2) 93 (38.9)  
Total energy intake (kcal/day), mean (SE) 1021.5 (32.9) 1005.0 (51.2) 0.793
Cancer sites    
 Gastric cancer 79 (13.4) 25 (10.5) 0.698
 Colorectal cancer 48 (8.1) 16 (6.7) 0.025
 Breast cancer 113 (19.1) 48 (20.1) 0.670
 Cervical cancer 93 (15.7) 42 (17.6) 0.309
 Thyroid cancer 169 (28.6) 65 (27.2) 0.820
 Other types 100 (16.9) 43 (18.0) 0.448
Family history of cardiovascular diseased 113 (19.1) 48 (20.1) 0.284
  1. Values above are presented as n (%) using unless otherwise specified
  2. Abbreviations: SE Standard Error, Q Quartile
  3. aComputed from survey regression for continuous variables and Rao-Scott F-adjusted chi-square test for categorical variables
  4. bEngaging in at least 1.25 to 2.5 h of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise per week
  5. cConsuming at least one standard drink (approximately 10.0 g of alcohol) in a month
  6. dFamily history of coronary heart disease or stroke