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Table 1 Group differences between hypertension and non-hypertension groups

From: Interaction between trouble sleeping and depression on hypertension in the NHANES 2005–2018

Variables Total [n = 30,434 (weighted%)] Groups Statistics P
Non-hypertension (n = 14,130) Hypertension (n = 16,304)
Age, years, Mean (S.E.) 47.30 (0.24) 40.15 (0.25) 54.64 (0.27) t = -52.95  < 0.001
Gender, n (%)     χ2 = 84.39  < 0.001
Male 15,022 (48.98) 6,430 (45.65) 8,592 (52.40)   
Female 15,412 (51.02) 7,700 (54.35) 7,712 (47.60)   
BMI, kg/m2, Mean (S.E.) 29.06 (0.09) 27.41 (0.10) 30.77 (0.10) t = -30.80  < 0.001
Race, n (%)     χ2 = 213.48  < 0.001
Mexican American 4,687 (8.15) 2,558 (9.91) 2,129 (6.34)   
Hispanic 2,747 (5.12) 1,425 (6.06) 1,322 (4.15)   
Non-Hispanic white 13,518 (69.06) 6,135 (67.49) 7,383 (70.67)   
Non-Hispanic black 6,490 (10.81) 2,407 (9.09) 4,083 (12.57)   
Other 2,992 (6.86) 1,605 (7.45) 1,387 (6.26)   
Marital status, n (%)     χ2 = 969.21  < 0.001
Married and or partner 15,817 (55.81) 7,109 (53.74) 8,708 (57.94)   
Widowed 2,363 (5.60) 429 (2.23) 1,934 (9.06)   
Divorced or separated 4,399 (12.90) 1,657 (10.87) 2,742 (14.99)   
Never married 7,855 (25.68) 4,935 (33.16) 2,920 (18.01)   
Education, n (%)     χ2 = 55.34  < 0.001
Less than high school 7,097 (15.48) 3,087 (14.49) 4,010 (16.49)   
High school graduate or GED 7,085 (22.91) 3,024 (21.12) 4,061 (24.75)   
Some college or above 1,6252 (61.61) 8,019 (64.39) 8,233 (58.76)   
Annual family income, n (%)     χ2 = 54.30  < 0.001
 < $ 20,000 23,930 (85.87) 11,537 (87.48) 12,393 (84.22)   
 ≥ $ 20,000 6,504 (14.13) 2,593 (12.52) 3,911 (15.78)   
Alcohol drinking, n (%) 20,969 (74.00) 10,122 (76.04) 10,847 (71.91) χ2 = 27.60  < 0.001
Smoking history, n (%) 13,904 (45.56) 5,849 (41.66) 8,055 (49.56) χ2 = 93.84  < 0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 4,033 (9.83) 722 (3.63) 3,311 (16.19) χ2 = 812.84  < 0.001
Stroke, n (%) 1,137 (2.78) 162 (0.91) 975 (4.71) χ2 = 262.64  < 0.001
Trouble sleeping, n (%) 7,845 (27.74) 2,842 (22.18) 5,003 (33.45) χ2 = 191.64  < 0.001
Depression, n (%) 2,641 (7.54) 1,063 (6.45) 1,578 (8.65) χ2 = 31.91  < 0.001
Sleep duration, hours, Mean (S.E.) 7.11 (0.01) 7.12 (0.02) 7.09 (0.02) t = 1.74 0.085
  1. BMI body mass index, GED general educational development