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Table 1 General characteristics of study population before and after propensity score matching

From: Association between smokeless tobacco use and cigarette smoking amount by age

  Smokeless tobacco use Standardized difference after matching
Before propensity score matching After propensity score matching
No (n = 19,048) Yes (n = 587) No (n = 2,900) Yes (n = 580)
Number of cigarettes used per day 13.9 ± 0.1 15.0 ± 0.5 14.4 ± 0.2 15.0 ± 0.5 0.07
Age (year) 46.7 ± 0.2 37.5 ± 0.7 38.3 ± 0.3 37.5 ± 0.7 0.01
Body mass index 29.2 ± 0.1 28.5 ± 0.4 28.4 ± 0.3 28.5 ± 0.4 -0.00
Ln (household income) 10.0 ± 0.0 10.0 ± 0.0 10.1 ± 0.0 10.0 ± 0.0 -0.00
Sex
 Men 9,163 (84.3) 520 (15.7) 2,543 (71.0) 513 (29.0) 0.02
 Women 9,885 (93.3) 67 (6.7) 357 (63.5) 67 (36.5)  
Race
 Whites 15,219 (88.3) 525 (11.7) 2,590 (69.1) 520 (30.9) 0.03
 African Americans 2,763 (94.3) 35 (5.7) 165 (80.6) 34 (19.4)  
 Others 1,066 (93.6) 27 (6.4) 145 (83.0) 26 (17.0)  
Marital status
 Single 6,597 (86.4) 240 (13.6) 1,276 (70.7) 236 (29.3) 0.08
 Widowed, divorced or separated 6,409 (88.7) 156 (11.3) 770 (69.6) 153 (30.4)  
 Married 6,042 (86.5) 191 (13.5) 854 (66.2) 191 (33.8)  
Education level
 Under high school 864 (86.9) 25 (13.1) 102 (66.9) 25 (33.1) 0.04
 High school 9,768 (87.8) 337 (12.2) 1,656 (71.3) 333 (28.7)  
 Above high school 8,416 (87.7) 225 (12.3) 1,142 (66.7) 222 (33.3)  
Job status
 All others 11,550 (91.2) 220 (8.8) 1,473 (74.8) 217 (25.2) 0.04
 Blue collar workers 6,104 (82.0) 316 (18) 1,193 (60.8) 312 (39.2)  
 Unemployed 1,394 (79.5) 51 (20.5) 234 (66.7) 51 (33.3)  
Alcohol consumption
 Never drinkers 1,682 (89.5) 33 (10.5) 126 (63.5) 32 (36.5) 0.06
 Former drinkers 3,595 (88.4) 63 (11.6) 289 (65.8) 62 (34.2)  
 Current drinkers 13,771 (87.4) 491 (12.6) 2,485 (70.6) 486 (29.4)  
Physical activity
 Inactive 8,906 (88.3) 238 (11.7) 1,167 (70.4) 236 (29.6) 0.01
 Insufficient 4,617 (87.9) 122 (12.1) 604 (66.7) 121 (33.3)  
 Active 5,525 (86.1) 227 (13.9) 1,129 (70.5) 223 (29.5)  
Tried to quit smoking
 Yes 8,410 (86.6) 287 (13.4) 1,417 (67.9) 285 (32.1) 0.01
 No 10,638 (88.2) 300 (11.8) 1,483 (69.9) 295 (30.1)  
Year
 2013 4,548 (85.4) 123 (14.6) 596 (65.8) 121 (34.2) 0.03
 2014 3,939 (87.2) 131 (12.8) 683 (70.5) 131 (29.5)  
 2015 3,726 (84.5) 114 (15.5) 538 (65.9) 111 (34.1)  
 2016 3,904 (88.8) 133 (11.2) 658 (71.6) 131 (28.4)  
 2017 2,931 (89.8) 86 (10.2) 425 (71.8) 86 (28.2)  
  1. Values: weighted mean ± standard error or n (weighted %)