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Table 1 The association between inadequate housing and tuberculosis by continent

From: Inadequate housing and pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review

  Country Study design Summary
Asia
 Heo et al. (2012) [30] South Korea Cross-sectional Among homeless TB patients, the type of residence and comorbidity with risk factor showed independent association with treatment success.
 Haider et al. (2013) [36] Pakistan Case-control The significant factors related to pulmonary TB status were daily contact with pulmonary TB patients and poor housing affordability.
 Lai et al. (2013) [37] Hong Kong Ecological Residence on lower floors in the dense clusters of high-rises are more prone to TB infection due to poorer air quality and lesser exposure to direct sunlight.
 Lee et al. (2013) [31] South Korea Cross-sectional The prevalence of LTBI among homeless was approximately five times higher than that of the non-homeless population and the TB burden among homeless should be managed by appropriate strategies.
 Low et al. (2013) [38] Hong Kong Ecological There was a strong negative relationship between TB outcome and floor levels of residence, and TB was more prevalent in public housing development.
 Choi et al. (2016) [39] South Korea Cohort Low educational levels, poor housing and occupations in the construction and manufacturing industries and service sectors were associated with poor treatment adherence.
 Irfan et al. (2017) [40] Bangladesh Case-control Significantly associated determinants of adult TB were over-crowding in a house, contact with a TB patient during the last 6 months and employed participants.
 Rao et al. (2018) [41] India Cross-sectional The socioeconomic risk factors such as malnutrition, poor living conditions in a kaccha house and tobacco smoking were significantly associated with pulmonary TB.
 Kim et al. (2019) [32] South Korea Case-control The housing provision package proved to be positively influential on the treatment outcomes of homeless TB patients that were grouped into COM, TAU and FAC
 Saqib et al. (2019) [42] Pakistan Cross-sectional The risk factors of household size, house structure, rooms in the home and room ventilation were significantly associated with TB history in patients.
 Wardani et al. (2019) [43] Indonesia Case-control The factors such as less ventilation, no in-house sunlight, existence of in-house smoking pollution and in-house TB contact significantly influenced on the TB infection risks.
America
 Kerker et al. (2011) [35] USA Cohort The study aimed to systematically characterize the health of the population who used the New York city family shelter system, and on some level, higher risks posed by homeless children were the results of poverty and unstable housing with poor quality.
 Bamrah et al. (2013) [26] USA Cohort For homeless persons, TB incidence was 10 times higher and treatment incompletion was 2 times higher compared to those of the general population.
 Feske et al. (2013) [27] USA Case-control TB rates among the homeless were due to social determinants and homeless patients were hospitalized more days than the housed.
 Hirsch-Moverman et al. (2015) [28] USA, Canada Cohort The factors associated with LTBI treatment non-completion were severe symptoms, inconvenience of clinic or pharmacy schedules, barriers to care and changes of residence, and people with stable housing with monthly appointment reminder were more likely to complete the treatment compared to those without stable housing or monthly reminder.
 Dawson et al. (2016) [34] USA Cross-sectional TB incidence of NYCHA residents was twice compared to that of non-NYCHA residents, and high TB strain diversity was found among NYCHA residents.
 Khan et al. (2016) [44] Canada Case-control The number of people per room was positively associated with the probability of newly diagnosed infection and disease, but only limited to the participants who lived with the one with smear-positive TB.
 Yamin et al. (2016) [25] USA Cohort The identified predictors of LTBI treatment incompletion were persons with unstable housing, tobacco use and those experiencing an adverse drug event.
 Pedro et al. (2017) [45] Brazil Ecological The housing conditions such as walls, sewage infrastructure and population density in the house was significantly associated with the incidence of TB.
 Kerr et al. (2020) [33] USA Cross-sectional The factors associated with recent TB evaluation were whether PEH was sheltered and PEH had awareness on the TB outbreak in the homeless.
Africa
 Cramm et al. (2011) [46] South Africa Cross-sectional The households with overcrowding and roof leakage were more likely to experience a household TB, while such probability was significantly reduced with higher social capital.
 Ephrem et al. (2015) [47] Ethiopia Case-control The factors associated with active PTB were number of households in the compound and the number of windows in a house.
 Tesema et al. (2015) [48] Ethiopia Case-control The independently associated factors of TB development were illiteracy, households with more than four family members, room space less than 4 m2, non-separated kitchen, history of contact with a TB patient, a house with no ceiling and absence of windows.
 Shimeles et al. (2019) [49] Ethiopia Case-control Less number of windows was significantly related to increased TB risks.
 Biru et al. (2020) [50] Ethiopia Case-control DR-TB among TB patients were significantly influenced by the risk factors of living in a one-roomed house, history of contact with DR-TB cases, treatment failure TB cases and relapsed TB cases.
Europe
 Arnold et al. (2017) [29] the UK Cohort The length of hospital admission was significantly associated with pulmonary TB, cavities on chest radiograph, a public health policy of waiting for sputum culture conversion and loss of patient’s home.
  1. Note: The table is sorted in order of the continent by the number of studies, the published year within the continent, and alphabetical order of the first author’s name of each study
  2. TB Tuberculosis, LTBI Latent Tuberculosis Infection, COM Community based intervention group, FAC TB Facility care group, TAU Treated As Usual group, PEH Person Experiencing Homelessness, NYCHA New York City Housing Authority, DR-TB Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis.