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Table 5 Longitudinal multilevel analysis testing the impact of development status on the incidence and mortality from liver cancer, 1990-2019

From: Global pattern of trends in incidence, mortality, and mortality-to-incidence ratio rates related to liver cancer, 1990–2019: a longitudinal analysis based on the global burden of disease study

Metric Parameter   Estimate SE P value
Incidence Intercept   5.67 0.78 0.007*
  Time   0.02 0.004 0.025*
  Development status     
   More Developed -1.36 0.22 0.012*
   Less-Developed Reference - -
  Development status × time   0.02 0.01 0.157**
  Random effects     
   \(\sigma_{u_{0i}}^2\) (between countries) 63.28 6.84 0.002*
   \(\sigma_{\upsilon0}^2\) (between regions) 3.96 3.44 0.283**
   \(\sigma_{\omega0}^2\) (between super-regions) 0.10 0.08 0.262**
  ICC (%)     
  Country level 88.2 - - -
  Region level 5.5 - - -
  Super-region level 0.13 - - -
Mortality Intercept   5.80 0.81 0.007*
  Time   0.02 0.005 0.043*
  Development status     
   More Developed -1.07 0.25 0.038*
   Less-Developed Reference   
  Development status × time   0.03 0.01 0.083**
  Random effects     
   \(\sigma_{u_{0i}}^2\) (between countries) 69.93 7.57 0.002*
   \(\sigma_{\upsilon0}^2\) (between regions) 4.01 3.66 0.296**
   \(\sigma_{\omega0}^2\) (between super-regions) 0.11 0.10 0.294**
  ICC (%)     
  Country level 88.07 - - -
  Region level 5.06 - - -
  Super-region level 0.14 - - -
  1. ICC Intraclass Correlation Coefficient; SE Standard Error, *< 0.05, **> 0.05