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Table 1 Age standardized incidence, mortality, and 1-MIR rates per 100,000 individuals as well as LGCM results stratified by gender and super- region, 1990–2019

From: Global pattern of trends in incidence, mortality, and mortality-to-incidence ratio rates related to liver cancer, 1990–2019: a longitudinal analysis based on the global burden of disease study

Super- region Metric Gender Year       LGCM estimates`
    1990 1996 2002 2008 2014 2019 Intercept Slope
  Incidence          
   Female 2.03(1.95,2.11) 1.99(1.92,2.07) 1.96(1.88,2.03) 2.37(2.27,2.47) 2.43(2.33,2.53) 2.38(2.16,2.64) 3.58* 0.08**
   Male 4.13(3.99,4.6) 4.44(4.29,4.58) 4.46(4.34,4.57) 5.31(5.15,5.45) 5.58(5.39,5.77) 5.44(4.79,6.07) 8.31* 0.11**
   Both 2.84(2.74,2.92) 2.97(2.87,3.06) 2.96(2.88,3.04) 3.57(3.45,3.68) 3.73(3.60,3.85) 3.65(3.33,3.98) 5.62* 0.09**
CEEECA Mortality          
   Female 2.15(2.06,2.24) 2.07(1.99,2.13) 2.02(1.94,2.10) 2.49(2.38,2.59) 2.51(2.38,2.60) 2.45(2.21,2.69) 3.68*** 0.11*
   Male 4.33(4.17,4.46) 4.55(4.42,4.68) 4.56(4.43,4.68) 5.53(5.33,5.71) 5.62(5.42,5.80) 5.55(4.90,6.24) 8.62* 0.15*
   Both 2.98(2.86,3.06) 3.03(2.94,3.11) 3.02(2.93,3.10) 3.71(3.57,3.82) 3.77(3.63,3.87) 3.72(3.39,4.07) 5.76* 0.12*
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
   Male 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.004(0,0.008) 0.002(0,0.003) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.006(0.005,0.007) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.005* 0.001**
   Both 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
  Incidence          
   Female 2.50(2.37,2.59) 3.25(3.04,3.38) 3.94(3.64,4.10) 3.99(3.62,4.18) 3.87(3.47,4.09) 3.82(3.35,4.25) 2.25*** −0.08***
   Male 7.79(7.59,7.95) 9.96(9.67,10.20) 11.74(11.39,11.97) 11.76(11.29,12.09) 11.32(10.78,11.66) 11.20(10.05,12.50) 5.63*** −0.15***
   Both 4.88(4.74,4.99) 6.29(6.05,6.45) 7.51(7.20,7.68) 7.58(7.17,7.81) 7.33(6.90,7.58) 7.27(6.55,8.01) 3.78*** −0.10***
HI Mortality          
   Female 2.32(2.18,2.40) 2.88(2.68,2.98) 3.38(3.10,3.52) 3.30(2.96,3.48) 3.19(2.82,3.37) 3.14(2.78,3.35) 2.21*** −0.05***
   Male 6.94(6.76,7.10) 8.60(8.33,8.78) 9.68(9.36,9.90) 9.17(8.76,9.46) 8.68(8.25,8.95) 8.55(7.94,8.97) 5.37*** −0.09***
   Both 4.38(4.23,4.48) 5.44(5.20,5.56) 6.24(5.94,6.40) 5.98(5.61,6.18) 5.71(5.31,5.91) 5.65(5.23,5.95) 3.63*** −0.08***
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.04(0.03,0.06) 0.09(0.08,0.10) 0.10(0.12,0.11) 0.13(0.11,0.14) 0.13(0.14,0.15) 0.12(0.11,0.16) 0.12*** 0.002***
   Male 0.11(0.10,0.12) 0.13(0.11,0.14) 0.17(0.16,0.18) 0.22(0.21,0.23) 0.22(0.20,0.23) 0.22(0.19,0.26) 0.16*** 0.003***
   Both 0.09(0.08,0.10) 0.12(0.11,0.13) 0.15(0.15,0.17) 0.19(0.18,0.20) 0.19(0.17,0.20) 0.19(0.18,0.22) 0.15*** 0.002***
  Incidence          
   Female 3.00(2.84,3.17) 2.65(2.51,2.76) 2.13(2.02,2.22) 2.18(2.06,2.27) 2.27(2.12,2.38) 2.26(2.03,2.51) 2.11*** 0.01*
   Male 3.61(3.41,3.81) 3.32(3.14,3.49) 2.95(2.76,3.11) 3.28(3.09,3.45) 3.66(3.47,3.82) 3.72(3.37,4.14) 3.40*** 0.03*
   Both 3.30(3.14,3.43) 2.97(2.83,3.07) 2.52(2.38,2.63) 2.69(2.54,2.82) 2.91(2.75,3.03) 2.93(2.66,3.27) 2.46*** 0.02*
LAC Mortality          
   Female 3.23(3.03,3.40) 2.81(2.65,2.94) 2.29(2.14,2.39) 2.30(2.15,2.42) 2.43(2.27,2.54) 2.40(2.16,2.67) 2.41*** 0.07**
   Male 3.84(3.61,4.05) 3.50(3.30,3.69) 3.16(2.96,3.35) 3.45(3.22,3.64) 3.88(3.66,4.06) 3.95(3.57,4.38) 3.28*** 0.11*
   Both 3.52(3.33,3.67) 3.14(2.97,3.27) 2.70(2.53,2.82) 2.83(2.65,2.97) 3.09(2.92,3.22) 3.11(2.82,3.44) 2.86*** 0.09*
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
   Male 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
   Both 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
  Incidence          
   Female 3.92(3.12,4.81) 3.68(3.19,4.20) 3.42(3.13,3.73) 3.87(3.55,4.23) 4.17(3.76,4.75) 4.10(3.44,4.97) 3.93*** 0.01**
   Male 8.18(7.08,9.30) 7.78(7.05,8.58) 7.79(7.27,8.33) 8.68(8.03,9.42) 8.93(7.84,10.22) 8.40(6.60,10.63) 6.46*** 0.03**
   Both 6.08(5.28,6.81) 5.76(5.24,6.25) 5.64(5.29,5.99) 6.31(5.91,6.81) 6.59(5.93,7.42) 6.29(5.13,7.71) 5.30*** 0.02**
NAME Mortality          
   Female 4.13(3.28,5.12) 3.83(3.27,4.43) 3.61(3.28,3.93) 3.87(3.51,4.24) 3.95(3.55,4.45) 3.69(3.10,4.51) 4.30*** −0.001**
   Male 8.62(7.48,9.79) 8.18(7.39,9.08) 8.41(7.76,9.07) 8.67(8.00,9.38) 9.16(8.12,10.28) 8.63(6.81,10.83) 7.06*** −0.003**
   Both 6.39(5.55,7.19) 6.03(5.47,6.55) 6.04(5.62,6.42) 6.31(5.90,6.74) 6.59(5.99,7.31) 6.20(5.06,7.62) 5.79*** −0.003**
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.04(0.05,0.04) 0.09(0.09,0.10) 0.13(0.13,0.12) −0.007*** 0.001**
   Male 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.02(0.02,0.03) 0.00(0.00,0.02) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.004*** 0.007**
   Both 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.03(0.03,0.04) 0.03(0.02,0.04) 0.04(0.04,0.04) −0.005* 0.003*
  Incidence          
   Female 1.96(1.54,2.45) 2.01(1.58,2.44) 2.05(1.65,2.43) 2.00(1.63,2.34) 1.98(1.67,2.29) 1.95(1.54,2.47)
   Male 3.29(2.64,3.91) 3.38(2.75,3.88) 3.52(2.96,3.91) 3.53(3.04,3.87) 3.45(3.13,3.76) 3.38(2.86,3.99)
   Both 2.66(2.20,3.08) 2.72(2.25,3.09) 2.79(2.37,3.11) 2.77(2.37,3.04) 2.70(2.42,2.94) 2.66(2.30,3.05)
SAa Mortality          
   Female 2.13(1.66,2.70) 2.18(1.74,2.67) 2.25(1.80,2.66) 2.22(1.82,2.59) 2.08(1.74,2.44) 2.09(1.61,2.67)
   Male 3.46(2.78,4.07) 3.61(2.93,4.13) 3.74(3.13,4.19) 3.78(3.27,4.18) 3.59(3.28,3.92) 3.56(2.98,4.18)
   Both 2.82(2.33,3.27) 2.92(2.44,3.32) 3.01(2.54,3.35) 3.00(2.59,3.30) 2.82(2.56,3.09) 2.81(2.43,3.24)
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
   Male 0.00(0.00,0.01) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
   Both 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
  Incidence          
   Female 12.17(10.133,14.70) 12.18(10.91,13.77) 8.39(7.78,9.18) 5.17(4.79,5.58) 4.75(4.30,5.20) 4.75(3.97,5.61) 6.11*** −0.05***
   Male 29.69(24.58,35.49) 33.06(30.15,36.51) 23.46(21.73,25.32) 13.61(12.66,14.74) 13.85(12.57,15.34) 14.66(12.12,17.59) 12.63*** −0.10*
   Both 20.85(17.91,24.30) 22.50(20.94,24.41) 15.77(14.85,16.83) 9.27(8.71,9.98) 9.14(8.44,9.89) 9.52(8.19,11.01) 9.35*** −0.09*
SAEAO Mortality          
   Female 12.70(10.53,15.36) 12.69(11.24,14.47) 8.10(7.25,9.15) 5.36(4.92,5.82) 4.73(4.27,5.22) 4.67(3.93,5.52) 6.38*** −0.07***
   Male 29.87(24.72,35.64) 33.42(30.05,37.20) 21.42(19.21,23.77) 13.61(12.49,14.79) 12.89(11.35,14.40) 13.40(11.17,15.84) 13.05*** −0.05***
   Both 21.13(18.37,24.44) 22.84(20.90,24.88) 14.56(13.37,15.89) 9.31(8.67,9.97) 8.61(7.84,9.43) 8.82(7.65,10.09) 9.60*** −0.05*
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.06(0.04,0.08) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.02(0.01,0.03) 0.03(0.02,0.04) 0.006
   Male 0.03(0.01,0.05) 0.02(0.01,0.04) 0.15(0.12,0.18) 0.04(0.03,0.06) 0.13(0.10,0.15) 0.11(0.09,0.12) 0.01
   Both 0.02(0.01,0.04) 0.03(0.01,0.05) 0.11(0.08,0.13) 0.03(0.02,0.05) 0.10(0.08,0.12) 0.09(0.08,0.10) 0.01
  Incidence          
   Female 3.31(2.83,3.95) 3.40(2.94,3.93) 3.37(2.94,3.84) 3.17(2.78,3.54) 3.06(2.69,3.43) 2.90(2.52,3.31) 3.73* −0.002*
   Male 5.61(4.57,7.59) 6.68(5.99,7.60) 6.88(6.19,7.66) 6.34(5.73,7.00) 6.05(5.47,6.67) 5.75(5.09,6.46) 8.14*** −0.03*
   Both 4.43(3.77,5.54) 4.99(4.49,5.52) 5.05(4.57,5.59) 4.67(4.24,5.11) 4.45(4.05,4.89) 4.22(3.77,4.71) 5.90*** −0.01*
SSA Mortality          
   Female 3.54(3.05,4.22) 3.63(3.16,4.17) 3.55(3.07,4.05) 3.37(2.95,3.76) 3.30(2.89,3.70) 3.13(2.72,3.59) 3.85*** −0.02***
   Male 6.01(4.91,8.14) 7.29(6.55,8.28) 7.41(6.58,8.32) 6.80(6.08,7.54) 6.54(5.88,7.20) 6.19(5.46,6.91) 10.56*** −0.05*
   Both 4.73(4.01,5.93) 5.38(4.83,5.96) 5.38(4.83,5.99) 4.98(4.49,5.48) 4.80(4.35,5.26) 4.53(4.03,5.04) 5.95*** −0.03*
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
   Male 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
   Both 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.00(0.00,0.00)
  Incidence          
   Female 5.22(4.62,5.96) 5.55(5.14,6.04) 4.69(4.40,4.95) 3.80(3.56,3.98) 3.66(3.40,3.87) 3.63(3.23,4.05) 3.99*** −0. 03***
   Male 13.07(11.42,14.87) 15.02(14.06,16.16) 12.63(12.02,13.26) 9.60(9.18,10.06) 9.59(9.07,10.11) 9.71(8.69,10.84) 7.91*** −0. 08*
   Both 8.98(8.10,9.97) 10.09(9.56,10.70) 8.47(8.10,8.84) 6.55(6.25,6.82) 6.47(6.11,6.77) 6.51(5.95,7.16) 5.83*** −0. 07*
Global Mortality          
   Female 5.33(4.67,6.09) 5.59(5.15,6.11) 4.47(4.15,4.80) 3.72(3.44,3.91) 3.51(3.22,3.74) 3.46(3.08,3.83) 4.17*** −0. 02***
   Male 12.90(11.30,14.67) 14.76(13.65,15.99) 11.48(10.70,12.29) 9.00(8.55,9.45) 8.66(8.10,9.22) 8.73(7.88,9.60) 8.14*** −0. 07*
   Both 8.93(8.09,9.90) 9.95(9.32,10.60) 7.78(7.35,8.20) 6.20(5.87,6.46) 5.93(5.59,6.24) 5.95(5.44,6.44) 6.03*** −0. 06*
  1-MIR          
   Female 0.00(0.00,0.00) 0.01(0.00,0.03) 0.07(0.05,0.09) 0.04(0.03,0.06) 0.05(0.05,0.03) 0.04(0.02,0.05) 0.006 0.01*
   Male 0.04(0.02,0.05) 0.05(0.04,0.07) 0.11(0.09,0.13) 0.09(0.08,0.11) 0.11(0.10,0.13) 0.11(0.10,0.13) 0.01 0.01*
   Both 0.02(0.01,0.03) 0.04(0.03,0.07) 0.09(0.08,0.11) 0.07(0.06,0.09) 0.09(0.06,0.10) 0.09(0.07,0.11) 0.01 0.01*
  1. Data in parentheses are 95% uncertainty intervals
  2. CEEECA Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, HI High Income, LAC Latin America and Caribbean, NAME North Africa and Middle East, SA South Asia, SAEAO Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania, SSA Sub-Saharan Africa, MIR Mortality-to-incidence ratio, LGCM Latent growth curve model
  3. * p<0.05, ** p>0.05, *** p<0.001
  4. aNot fitted LGCM, due to inadequate number of countries