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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of male and female study cohortsa

From: Comparison of mortality hazard ratios associated with health behaviours in Canada and the United States: a population-based linked health survey study

  Males Females
Characteristic United States Canada United States Canada
Total N 25,342 134,524 32,890 161,883
Age
 20 to 34 27.8 22.8 27.0 22.9
 35 to 49 31.6 27.8 29.7 24.3
 50 to 64 23.0 27.1 21.7 26.6
 65 to 79 14.2 18.5 16.0 20.0
 80+ 3.4 3.8 5.6 6.1
Smoking Status
 Heavy smoker 11.5 10.7 6.8 5.7
 Light smoker 13.8 16.1 12.8 16.9
 Former smoker 26.8 37.1 18.9 28.4
 Never smoker 47.0 35.8 60.8 48.8
 Missing 0.9 0.3 1.0 0.3
Alcohol Consumption
 Heavy drinker 10.8 12.2 2.7 3.3
 Moderate drinker 18.5 19.9 10.4 14.8
 Light or non-drinker 68.3 40.7 85.0 52.7
 Missing 2.4 27.2 1.9 29.2
Physical Activityb
 Median (IQR) 0.6 (0.0, 2.9) 1.5 (0.5, 3.0) 0.3 (0.0, 1.7) 1.3 (0.5, 2.6)
 0 41.3 9.7 45.9 11.7
  > 0 to < 1.5 18.9 37.9 23.6 41.3
 1.5 to < 3 14.1 24.3 13.8 25.1
  > 3 24.5 25.5 15.8 20.7
 Missing 1.3 2.6 0.9 1.2
Diet (median (IQR))
 Fruits and vegetables 1.6 (1.0, 2.3) 2.6 (1.7, 4.0) 2.0 (1.2, 2.7) 3.6 (2.4, 5.3)
  Missing (%) 17.9 20.9 19.3 19.3
 Juice 0.5 (0.1, 1.0) 1.0 (0.1, 1.0) 0.5 (0.1, 1.0) 0.7 (0.1, 1.0)
  Missing (%) 13.9 18.9 15.0 17.7
 Potato 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 0.4 (0.1, 0.6) 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) 0.3 (0.1, 0.6)
  Missing (%) 5.7 19.0 5.2 17.8
Education
  < High school graduation 22.2 22.1 19.9 22.2
 High school graduate 24.1 22.6 29.1 24.1
 Post-secondary graduate 52.8 54.1 50.4 52.8
 Missing 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.9
Years Since Immigration
  < 5 years 2.7 1.3 2.1 1.2
 5 to < 10 years 2.8 1.4 2.6 1.3
 10 to < 15 years 2.5 1.2 2.2 1.2
  > 15 years 9.2 10.4 9.0 10.1
 Non-immigrant 82.5 85.5 83.8 86.0
 Missing 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.2
Ethnicity
 White 67.0 89.1 64.7 89.6
 Black 12.0 0.9 15.0 0.8
 South Asian 0.6 1.3 0.4 1.0
 Chinese 0.6 1.4 0.4 1.4
 Other Asian 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6
 Latin American 16.6 0.4 16.3 0.4
 Other/Multiple 1.6 4.8 1.5 4.9
 Missing 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.3
Heart Disease
 Yes 11.0 8.4 10.9 6.8
 No 88.8 91.4 88.9 93.0
 Missing 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Stroke
 Yes 2.5 1.8 2.9 1.6
 No 97.4 98.1 97.0 98.4
 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Cancer
 Yes 6.5 5.6 8.2 7.2
 No 93.5 62.4 91.7 60.8
 Missing 0.1 31.9 0.1 31.9
Diabetes
 Yes 7.7 7.8 7.5 6.8
 No 91.2 92.1 91.4 93.1
 Missing 1.1 0.1 1.2 0.1
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Median (IQR) 26.6 (24.2, 29.8) 26.3 (23.9–29.1) 25.7 (22.3, 30.0) 24.8 (22.0–28.8)
  > 35 6.6 4.5 9.8 5.9
  < 35 91.5 93.9 85.2 88.6
 Missing 1.9 1.6 5.0 5.5
Survey Cycle
 CCHS 2.1 32.7 32.7
 CCHS 3.1 33.7 33.5
 CCHS 4.1 33.6 33.8
 NHIS 2000 50.7 50.7
 NHIS 2005 49.3 49.3
  1. Abbreviations: CCHS Canadian Community Health Survey, IQR interquartile range, NHIS National Health Interview Survey
  2. a Numbers are percentages unless otherwise indicated
  3. b Average daily metabolic equivalent of task values