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Table 4 Modified Poisson regression model of the distress financing determinants among households in Malaysia (n = 5,146)

From: The inequalities and determinants of Households’ Distress Financing on Out-off-Pocket Health expenditure in Malaysia

Characteristics β RR 95% CI for RR SE for RR p-value
Household location      
  Urban (ref.)      
  Rural -0.02 0.98 0.86, 1.13 0.07 0.810
Total of household members aged 65 years and older      
  0 (ref.)      
  1 0.66 1.94 1.68, 2.24 0.14 < 0.001 ***
  2 and more 0.46 1.59 1.26, 2.01 0.19 < 0.001 ***
Total of household members aged less than 5 years      
  0 (ref.)      
  1 -0.24 0.79 0.62, 1.00 0.09 0.047 *
  2 and more 0.10 1.11 0.79, 1.55 0.19 0.550
Household size      
  Less than 5 (ref.)      
  5 and more 0.08 1.08 0.87, 1.35 0.12 0.492
Socio-economic status      
  Poorest (ref.)      
  Poor -0.55 0.57 0.48, 0.69 0.05 < 0.001 ***
  Middle -0.55 0.58 0.47, 0.71 0.06 < 0.001 ***
  Rich -0.91 0.40 0.31, 0.52 0.05 < 0.001 ***
  Richest -1.03 0.36 0.27, 0.48 0.05 < 0.001 ***
Total of household members received outpatient care in the past 2 weeks      
  0 (ref.)      
  1 0.12 1.13 0.96, 1.32 0.09 0.131
  2 0.21 1.23 0.92, 1.65 0.19 0.163
More than 2 -0.11 0.90 0.43, 1.86 0.33 0.767
Total of household members received inpatient care in the past 12 months      
  0 (ref.)      
  1 0.24 1.28 1.07, 1.52 0.11 0.006 **
  2 0.46 1.58 1.06, 2.35 0.32 0.026 *
  More than 2 0.09 1.10 0.20, 6.00 0.95 0.915
Total of household members received oral healthcare in the past 12 months      
  0 (ref.)      
  1 0.04 1.04 0.88, 1.22 0.09 0.670
  2 -0.15 0.86 0.66, 1.12 0.11 0.256
  More than 2 0.16 1.17 0.88, 1.56 0.17 0.288
Supplementary Health Coverage      
  No coverage (ref.)      
  One coverage -0.08 0.92 0.79, 1.07 0.07 0.288
  More than 1 coverage -0.02 0.98 0.81, 1.19 0.10 0.841
  1. Note: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (significance level at 10%, 5%, and 1%, respectively)
  2. Cox-Snell, R squared = 0.049, Nagelkerke, R squared = 0.084
  3. χ2 = 347.91, p < 0.001
  4. RR is Relative Risk, CI is Confidence Interval, SE is Standard Error