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Table 1 Prevalence of Various Sources of Distress Financing by household location and socio-economic status in Malaysia (n = 5,146)

From: The inequalities and determinants of Households’ Distress Financing on Out-off-Pocket Health expenditure in Malaysia

Characteristics n Sell of assets Borrowing without interest Borrowing with interest
I (%) 95% CI I (%) 95% CI I (%) 95% CI
Household location
 Urban 3,196 0.97 0.68, 1.38 12.42 11.32, 13.61 1.03 0.73, 1.45
 Rural 1,950 0.72 0.43, 1.21 16.21 14.63, 17.91 1.03 0.66, 1.58
Socio-economic status
 Poorest 1,425 1.05 0.64, 1.74 25.54 23.34, 27.87 0.56 0.28, 1.12
 Poor 1,098 0.73 0.36, 1.45 12.20 10.40, 14.28 0.73 0.36, 1.45
 Middle 941 1.06 0.57, 1.96 10.63 8.81, 12.76 1.59 0.96, 2.63
 Rich 874 0.69 0.31, 1.52 7.44 5.87, 9.38 1.26 0.70, 2.26
 Richest 808 0.74 0.33, 1.64 6.19 4.72, 8.07 1.36 0.76, 2.44
Total 5,146 0.87 0.65, 1.17 13.86 12.94, 14.83 1.03 0.79, 1.35
  1. Note: I is Prevalence (%), and CI is the Confidence Interval