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Table 2 IT applications in the COVID-19 pandemic

From: A framework for information technology-based management against COVID-19 in Iran

Objectives IT types (References) Applications
Prevention Mobile health(M-health) [4, 9, 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28] * Virtual education and training
* Information sharing
* Remote consultation
* Providing updated information on newly suspected COVID-19 communities/regions
* Raising awareness
* Location monitoring
* Monitoring the movements of quarantined individuals
* Promoting personal health tracking
* Crowd activity monitoring
* Contact tracing (initial screening, have a “chatbox” for real-time communication, education, and remote monitoring)
* Promoting personal health tracking
Internet search query [9, 13, 17, 29] * Raising public awareness and social control
* Online tracking system for the COVID-19 pandemic
* Internet search data demonstrates information-seeking behavior in response to local COVID-19 cases and web-search behavior.
* Monitor the disease outbreak and information dissemination
* Health Education and Promotion
* Internet-based consultation sessions
Robotic [9, 13, 16, 23, 29, 30] * Allows doctors to monitor and interact with infected patients
* To assist doctors in taking vital signs and communicating with patients via a large screen in Seattle
* To transport medical supplies
* Navigates and sanitizes floors without human interference
* Spraying disinfectants
* Cleaning
Telehealth [9, 13, 17, 20, 22, 29,30,31,32,33] * Consulting (e.g., Synchronous video consultation)
* Health Education and Promotion
* Virtual education
* A self-assessment conducted asynchronously through an application to determine possible symptoms
* Remote patient monitoring
Internet of Things (IoT) [9, 23, 29, 30, 34,35,36] * Monitor and measure the level of container
* Data collection/sharing
* For social distancing
* Remote monitoring of COVID-19 patients in quarantine centers and/or self-isolation
* Contact Tracing and Clustering
Artificial Intelligence (AI) [16, 23, 29, 30, 35, 37,38,39,40,41,42,43] * Provide updated information
* Early warnings and alerts
* Awareness and social control
* Monitoring and maintaining social distance
* Tracking pedestrians
Big data analytics [4, 29, 30, 35, 42, 44] * Raise awareness
* Raise education
Virtual Reality (VR) [9, 29, 30, 45] * Educating and learning about the COVID-19 virus
* Tele-communication to share patient experiences
* Educating children on coronavirus safety
Social media [13, 17, 21, 29] * Early warning
* Health Education and Promotion
* Information dissemination
Blockchain [23, 46] * Preventing the circulation of fake news
* To share COVID-19 data on the Algorand blockchain
Video games [13] * Education of protection strategies
Drones [13, 29] * Spraying disinfectants in remote areas
* To deliver medical supplies
5G network [23] * Facilitates teleconsultation
* Providing better assistance to the frontline staff and facilitating improved virus tracking
Decision support system (DSS) [17] * Early warning
Surveillance system [9] * To identify quarantined individuals with COVID-19 symptoms
Augmented Reality (AR)[45] * Providing high-resolution audio and video
Cloud computing [17] * Early warning
Diagnosis M-health [9, 16,17,18,19,20,21,22, 24, 27, 28, 31, 47] * Telemedicine visitation services and virtual venues for meetings
* Virtual education
* Training
* Information sharing
* Remote consultation
* Raise awareness
* Location monitoring
* Clinical Symptom Monitoring
* Unobtrusive Sensing for Physiological and Symptomatic Monitoring of COVID-19
* Multi-parameter Physiological Monitoring
Drones [29] * Allows to scan through a crowd of people and detect someone in need of medical attention (crowd surveillance)
* To monitor citizens in real-time
* Delivery of medical supplies and other essentials (e.g., thermal imaging camera) and patient samples to improve virus detection
* Public announcements
Telehealth [9, 17, 20, 22, 30, 31, 33] * Assessing patients (assess the possibility of being a COVID-19 carrier)
* To support nurses and doctors in screening sick patients
* To rapidly screen potential COVID-19 cases using questionnaires
* Remotely monitoring and diagnosing
* Providing health services using virtual care for clinical examinations
AI [23, 29, 30, 37,38,39,40, 42, 43, 48,49,50] * Diagnosis of COVID-19 from Chest CT Images
* Diagnosis using radiology images
* Screening the patient risk
* Early detection
* CT assessment of patients
* The severity of COVID-19
* Face Mask Detection
* Thermography
* Germ screening
* Risk Assessment and Patient Prioritization
IoT [4, 9, 23, 30, 34, 36] * Real-time Tracking (e.g., To track clinical specimens)
* Rapid and enhanced diagnosis
* Screening
* Smart thermometers to screen people for high fevers
DSS [9] * Early detection
* Screening and triage
* Risk assessment for suspected individuals
* To assist general practitioners (GPs)
* For characterizing the severity of COVID-19
Robots [9, 16, 29] * Measuring body temperature and recording other relevant data
* Assisting patient diagnosis
(Geographic information system) GIS [9, 17] * COVID-19 contact tracing
* Track COVID-19 patients
* Triage of COVD19 patients
5G-network [23] * Facilitating improved virus tracking
* Facilitates teleconsultation
Big data analytics [42, 44] * Assist with diagnosis
* Estimate or predict risk score
Surveillance system [9] * Early detection
VR [45] * Seeing into the patient’s lungs
Blockchain [23] * Facilitating increased testing
Video games [13] * Assist with diagnosis
Social media [46] * Assist with early detection
(Electronic health record) EHR * Assist with quick diagnosis
3D printing [46] * Meeting the requirements of medical equipment
Nanotechnology [46] * Can help to diagnose and treat through Nanoparticles and equipment
Cloud computing [17] * Via mobile system: Early detection, screening, and triage
Treatment Telehealth [9, 13, 20, 22, 30,31,32,33] * Monitor patient recovery
* Outpatient treatment
* Communication between patients and physicians through secure video chats
* Remote patient monitoring
* Virtual care
* Chronic disease management
* Treatment of sleep disorders
* Elderly care
M-health [9, 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24, 27, 31] * Telemedicine visit services and virtual venues for meetings
* To monitor patients with mild symptoms who have tested positive for COVID-19
* Self-management of symptoms
* Remote consultation
* Monitor patients (by temperature, heart rate, oxygen, and blood pressure)
* Improve mental health (Remote Physiological Monitoring)
* Monitor people’s physical health, along with their stress levels
AI [23, 29, 30, 37,38,39,40, 42] * Identification of a potential therapeutic option
* Critical patient screening
* Support vaccination development
* Automated Patient Care
* Monitoring
* Development of drugs and vaccines
Robotic and automatic vehicles [9, 16, 23, 29] * Monitoring the quarantined patients
* Monitor patient recovery
* Allows doctors to monitor and interact with infected patients
* To assist in the treatment of patients
* Advice on symptomatic management and self-isolation
VR [45] * In palliative care
* Telehealth VR system for various disorders
* Assisting in the discovery of potential molecular targets for the inhibition of COVID-19 proteins
IoT [4, 9, 23, 30, 34, 36] * Remote patient monitoring
* Effective monitoring and control
* To facilitate remote patient monitoring
Big data analytics [44] * Healthcare decision making
* Pharmaceutical
5G network [23] * Patient monitoring
* Facilitates Teleconsultation
Video games [13] * Help drug discovery: helped immensely in reconstructing the structure of the coronavirus protein, helps in (virus) protein three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and similarity searching
Bioinformatics systems [9] * Drug discovery
Protection IoT [4, 9, 23, 34,35,36] * Control hazardous waste
* Real-Time Waste Inf.
* Remote monitoring
* IoT BUTTONS To maintain high cleaning standards and limit the number of hospital-acquired infection
* IoT solutions for social distancing
AI [23, 29, 35, 37,38,39,40, 42] * Reducing the workload of healthcare workers
* Facilitating the implementation of public health interventions
* Control hazardous waste
Robotic and automatic vehicles [9, 13, 16, 23, 29] * Reducing the workload of healthcare workers
* Facilitating the implementation of public health interventions
* Spraying disinfectants
AR [45] * Sending patient information to the healthcare system directly
* Visualization of invisible concepts
Surveillance system [9] * Enhancing staff protection in a healthcare setting
Telehealth [9, 20, 22, 31, 33] * The state pharmacy boards have temporarily permitted pharmacists to remotely work and carry out dispensing activities outside a licensed pharmacy
* Reducing face to face visits
M-health [17, 18, 24, 25, 27, 28] * Self-management of symptoms
* Mobile telehealth system
* People and health care providers have benefited from mobile phone diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and screening in any location, which has resulted in a reduction in touch.
Big data analytics [35] * Control hazardous waste
Drones [23] * Minimize human interaction
Management aims GIS [4, 9, 17, 51, 52] * COVID-19 Data Visualization and Exploratory Data Analysis (i.e., dashboards
* Spatiotemporal analysis
* Health and social geography
* Web-based mapping
* Provide information related to the surveillance of the pandemic
* Real-time tracking of transmission, activity tracking, and quarantine-level analysis
* Real-time tracking map
* Spatial modeling
* Provide data mining data
M-health [9, 17,18,19,20, 23, 24, 27, 28] * Information sharing
* Assist in planning further management
* Current status and statistics from local areas (specific countries) to a global overview
* Providing updated information on newly suspected COVID-19 communities/regions
* Monitor the disease outbreak and information dissemination
* Resource allocation
* Visualization of the State governments’ data
* Crowd activity monitoring
* Scatter contact person mobility patterns
Blockchain [4, 23, 30, 35, 46] * Facilitating increased reporting
* Recording COVID-19 patient data
* Managing lockdown implementation
* Enabling an incentive-based volunteer participation platform
* Enabling a secure donation platform for sponsors
* Limiting supply chain disruptions
* Support for immunity and vaccine certification
* Route setting
*Authenticate and validate COVID-19 and encrypt health data
IoT [4, 9, 30, 34,35,36] * Surveillance
* To control the amount of hazardous waste and monitor the amount of waste
* Data collection/sharing
* Ability to transfer data over a computer network
* Real-time access to COVID-19 data
AI [23, 29, 30, 35, 37,38,39,40, 42] * Prediction of a patient’s health condition’s outcome
* Protein structure predictions
* Predict the severity of COVID-19
* The spread and progression of the pneumonia lesions
* Predicting affected patients
* Risk Prediction
* Debunking fake news
* Enforcing lockdown measures
* Social control
* Control hazardous waste
5G network [23] * Data collection and analysis
* Perceived quality of service and data transfer rate to ensure real-time access to data
internet search queries [9] * Showing information flow of the COVID-19 pandemic
* Epidemiologic surveillance tool
Telehealth [9, 20] * Resource allocation
* Outbreak surveillance
Big data analytics [4, 29, 30, 35, 44] * Collecting, sorting, and analyzing the huge masses of data
* Connected to national health information systems (HIS) and store data (mobility patterns) on a real-time basis for further analysis
* Healthcare decision-making
* Control hazardous waste
DSS [9, 35] * Use in the healthcare supply chain
* Help to demand management in the health care context
Social Media [17] * The dynamic burden of the pandemic and analysis of its consequences
Surveillance system [9] * To estimate COVID-19 growth rate through surveillance systems
* Timely updates of references and population’s data
Video games [13] * Assists with the transformation of large amounts of data into visual images
EHR [53] * Assist with health data analysis
* Assist with prediction by providing health data
Cloud computing [35] * Through big data analytics: Control hazardous waste