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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Studies Included in the Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

From: Sedentary time and its association with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Publication Country Sample Source Study Design Follow-up Duration, years Sample Size Age, years Male, % Exposure indicator CVD Outcomes
Assessed Cases
Park, 2021 [14] South Korean KNHANES (2014–2018)a Cross-sectional study 0 6785 ≥65 44.57 Total sedentary time CVD morbidity 914
Hamer, 2020 [11] UK UK Biobank (2006–2010)a Prospective study 10.4 479,658 56.5 ± 8.0 45.7 Screen time CVD mortality 1437
Liu, 2020 [13] China China-PAR (1998, 2000–2001, 2007–2008)a Prospective study 5.8 93,110 52.8 ± 12.3 39.4 Total sedentary time CVD morbidity or CVD mortality 3799
Tu, 2020 [18] China Self-sampling Prospective study 5.9 3019 ≥18 42.9 Total sedentary time CVD morbidity and mortality 143
Bellettiere, 2019 [19] US OPACH (2012–2014)a Prospective study 4.9 5638 79.0 ± 7.0 0 Total sedentary time CVD morbidity and mortality NA
Garcia, 2019 [21] US JHS (2000–2004)a Prospective study 8.4 3592 ≥21 36.7–40.8 Screen time & Occupational sitting time CVD morbidity 168
Stamatakis, 2019 [15] Australia The 45 and Up study (2006–2009)a Prospective study 7.4 148,836 ≥45 44.5 Total sitting time CVD mortality 1403
Patel, 2018 [26] US CPS-II Nutrition study (1992)a Prospective study 20.3 127,554 50–74 44.38 Leisure sedentary time CVD mortality 16,083
Morales, 2018 [9] UK UK Biobank (2007–2010)a Prospective study 4.1 205,338 40–69 NA Screen time CVD morbidity 9660
Dohrn, 2017 [16] Sweden ABC study (2001–2002)a Prospective study 14.2 851 66.7 ± 10.2 44 Total sedentary time CVD mortality 24
Engelen, 2017 [27] Australia ANNPAS (2011–2012)a Cross-sectional study 0 9435 ≥18 NA Total sitting time CVD morbidity NA
Cumming, 2016 [22] Australia AusDiab (1999–2000)a Prospective study 12 9104 50.7 ± 13.4 to 67.4 ± 13.0 44.33 Screen time CVD morbidity 126
Evenson, 2016 [17] US NHANES (2003–2006)a Prospective study 6.7 3809 55.3 45.4 Total sedentary time, screen time CVD mortality 107
Grace, 2016 [24] Australia AusDiab (1999–2000)a Prospective study 13.6 8907 ≥18 44.3 Screen time CVD mortality 209
McDonnell, 2016 [23] US REGARDS (2003–2007)a Prospective study 7.1 22,257 ≥45 44.5 Screen time CVD morbidity 727
Moller, 2016 [28] Denmark DWECS (1990)a Prospective study 12.2 11,996 18–59 NA Occupational sitting time CVD morbidity and mortality 510
Borodulin, 2015 [20] Finland National FINRISK 2002 study (2002)a Prospective study 8.6 4516 47.0 ± 13.0 44.5 Total sedentary time CVD morbidity and mortality 183
Ikehara, 2015 [25] Japan JACC study (1988–1990)a Prospective study 19.2 85,899 40–79 41.9 Screen time CVD mortality 5835
Keadle, 2015 [7] US NIH-AARP Health Study (1995–1996)a Prospective study 14.1 221,426 50–71 57 Screen time CVD mortality 7340
  1. aBaseline years of the data collection
  2. Abbreviations: CVD Cardiovascular Diseases, KNHANES the Korean National Health And Nutrition Evaluation Study, UK the United Kingdom, US the United States, China-PAR the Prediction for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk in China project, OPACH the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Survey, NA Non-available, JHS The Jackson Heart Survey, CPS-II Cancer Prevention Study II, ABC study the Sweden Attitude Behavior and Change study, ANNPAS Australia Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, AusDiab Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, NHANES The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, REGARDS The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke, DEWCS Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, JACC The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk, NIH-AARP The National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study