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Table 1 Characteristics of type 2 diabetes and hypertension studies included in the review

From: Assessment of the association between plant-based dietary exposures and cardiovascular disease risk profile in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Reference Study design Country, (province or region) N Sex Age Dietary
Exposure
Dietary comparator Health
outcome
Masilela 2020 [46] Cross-sectional South Africa, (Mpumalanga) 157 24 males
133 females
Age categories:
≤ 49 years
50–59 years
≥ 60 years
Fruits and vegetables frequency of consumption (e.g., 1–3 times/week) Fast food Fasting blood samples were collected to measure:
HbA1c levels
Galbete
2018 [48]
Cross-sectional Ghana, (Ashanti) 2362
Rural: 942
Urban: 1420
Rural:
365 males
577 females
Urban:
409 males
1011 females
Mean age: 46.2 ± 11.0 years
Rural mean age:46.8 years
Urban mean age: 45.3 years
“Roots, tubers and plantain” dietary pattern: refined cereals, fruits, nuts/seeds, roots/tubers/plantain, fermented maize products, legumes, palm oil and condiments. “Mixed” dietary pattern
“Rice, pasta, meat and fish” dietary pattern
Fasting blood samples were collected to measure:
Glucose levels
Chikowore 2017 [49] Cohort South Africa, (North West) 2010 Rural:
347 males
659 females
Urban:
399 males
605 females
Age range:
35 to 60 years
“Magnesium, phosphorus and plant protein” pattern
“Starch, dietary fibre and B vitamin” pattern
“Thiamine, zinc and plant protein” pattern
“Thiamine, starch and folate” pattern
“Fat and animal protein” pattern
“Retinol and vitamin B12” pattern
“Beta carotene and vitamin C” pattern
Fasting blood samples were collected to measure:
Glucose levels
HbA1c levels
Kimani 2019 [44] Cross-sectional Kenya, (Nairobi) 229 102 males
127 females
Age categories:
18–25 years
26–35 years
36–45 years
46–55 years
56–65 years
≥ 66 years
Fruits and vegetables frequency of consumption (e.g., daily) Fast food and meals high in animal fat Blood pressure readings were taken. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) classification was used.
Rush
2018 [42]
Cross-sectional Zambia, (Western Province) 261
Urban:131
Rural: 130
92 males
169 females
Urban mean age: 39.40 ± 14.39 years
Rural mean age: 54.13 ± 17.56 years
Fruit and vegetable frequency of consumption (e.g., average number of days/week) Blood pressure readings were taken. The 2014 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community was used.
Katalambula 2017 [43] Cross-sectional Tanzania, (Arusha) 549 233 males
316 females
Mean age:
40.70 ± 12.07 years
‘Healthy’ dietary pattern: carbohydrate rich foods, vegetable, fruits, and spices.
‘Complex carbohydrate’ dietary pattern: sweets, roots, tubers, and legumes.
‘Western’ dietary pattern Blood pressure readings were taken. The JNC 7 classification was used to define hypertension.
  1. N = Sample size