Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected characteristics of studies included in the systematic review

From: The health consequences of child marriage: a systematic review of the evidence

Authors Year Country Design Sample size Outcomes Risk of Bias
Agyei and Mbamanya [25] 1989 Kenya CS (WFS) 6193 Number and timing of births Serious
Ali et al. [26] 2020 Bangladesh CS (DHS) 15842 Number and timing of births Serious
Ayane et al. [27] 2019 Ethiopia CS 314 Birth intervals Serious
Baytekus et al. [28] 2019 Ethiopia CS 742 Nutritional status Serious
Begum et al. [29] 2015 India CS 1137 Intimate partner violence Serious
Berlie and Alamerew [30] 2018 Ethiopia CS 201 Number and timing of births Serious
Birhanu et al. [31] 2019 Ethiopia CS (DHS) 2679 Number and timing of births Critical
De Groot et al. [32] 2018 Ghana CS 2497 Number and timing of births; contraception; mental health; others Serious-Criticala
Delprato and Akyeampong [33] 2017 39 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southwest Asia CS (DHS) from 21544 to 209617 Maternal health care Serious
Efevbera et al. [34] 2019 35 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa CS (DHS) 249269 Nutritional status; number and timing of births Serious
Erulkar [35] 2013 Ethiopia CS 1506 Intimate partner violence Serious
Fakhari et al. [36] 2020 Iran CS 530 Mental health Serious
Gebremedhin and Betre [37] 2009 Ethiopia CS 1376 Number and timing of birth Serious
Gebrezgi et al. [38] 2017 Ethiopia CS 422 Intimate partner violence Serious
Godha et al. [39] 2013 India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan CS (DHS) 14628 (India), 2129 (Bangladesh), 1658(Nepal), 1546 (Pakistan) Number of timing of births; birth intervals; unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination; contraception; maternal health care Serious
Habyarimana and Ramroop [40] 2018 Rwanda CS (DHS) 6841 Contraceptive use Serious
Hailemariam and Haddis [41] 2011 Ethiopia CS (DHS) 4121 Contraceptive use Serious
Hong Le et al. [42] 2014 Viet Nam CS 1701 Intimate partner violence Serious
Imasiku et al. [43] 2013 Zambia CS (DHS) 4343 Contraceptive use Serious
John, Edmeades, and Murithi [44] 2019 Niger and Ethiopia CS 2463 (Niger), 3501 (Ethiopia) Mental health Serious
John, Edmeades, Murithi, et al. [45] 2019 Ethiopia CS 3396 Mental health Serious
Kamal [46] 2012 Bangladesh CS (DHS) 9572 Number of timing of births; unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination; contraceptive use Serious
Kamal [47] 2013 Bangladesh CS (DHS) 1013 (induced abortion); 480 (unintended pregnancy) Unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination Serious
Kamal and Hassan [48] 2015 Bangladesh CS (DHS) 15779 Unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination Serious
Kidman [22] 2016 34 countries CS (DHS) 39877 Intimate partner violence Serious
Kidman and Heymann [23] 2018 47 countries in multiple regions CS (DHS) from 64100 to 338575 Number of timing of births; contraceptive use; intimate partner violence Serious
Le Strat et al. [21] 2011 United States CS 18645 Mental health Serious
Misunas et al. [24] 2019 15 countries in multiple regions CS (DHS) not stated Number and timing of births; Contraceptive use; others Serious
Nasrullah et al. [49] 2013 Pakistan CS (DHS) 1404 Maternal health care Serious
Nasrullah, Muazzam, et al. [50] 2014 Pakistan CS (DHS) 1560 Number of timing of births; unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination Serious
Nasrullah, Zakar, et al. [51] 2014 Pakistan CS (DHS) 589 Intimate partner violence Serious
Nigatu et al. [52] 2018 Ethiopia CS 322 Nutritional status Serious
Olamijuwon et al. [53] 2017 18 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa CS (DHS) 25327 Contraceptive use; intimate partner violence; maternal health care Serious
Onagoruwa and Wodon [54] 2018 15 countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa CS (DHS) from 1441 to 10285 Number of timing of births Serious
Oshiro et al. [55] 2011 Nepal CS 905 Intimate partner violence Serious
Pandey and Singh [56] 2015 India CS (DHS) 54918 Contraceptive use Serious
Paul [57] 2018 India CS 35253 Unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination; others Serious
Paul and Chouhan [58] 2019 India CS (DHS) 190898 Maternal health care Serious
Prakash et al. [59] 2011 India CS (DHS) 39026 Others Serious
Rahman et al. [60] 2014 Bangladesh CS (DHS) 2174 Intimate partner violence Serious
Rahman et al. [61] 2018 Bangladesh Cohort 1183 Nutritional status Serious
Raj [62] 2010 India CS (DHS) 14628 Unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination; Birth intervals; contraceptive use; others Serious
Raj et al. [63] 2009 India CS (DHS) 14873 Number of timing of births; unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination; contraceptive use Serious
Raj et al. [64] 2010 India CS (DHS) 10514 Intimate partner violence Serious
Raj et al. [65] 2013 Nepal CS (DHS) 2439 Contraceptive use Serious
Santhya et al. [66] 2010 India CS 8314 Contraceptive use; unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination; maternal health care; intimate partner violence Serious
Sekine and Carter [67] 2019 Nepal CS (DHS) 3970 Maternal health care Serious
Singh et al. [68] 2019 India CS 350 Others Critical
Solanke [69] 2019 Nigeria CS (DHS) 25852 Number and timing of births Serious
Speizer and Pearson [70] 2011 India CS (DHS) 59841 Intimate partner violence Serious
Tenkorang [71] 2019 Ghana CS 2289 Intimate partner violence Serious
Thakur et al. [72] 2015 India Case-control 452 Others Serious
Thekdi et al. [73] 2014 India CS 400 Others Critical
Uddin et al. [74] 2019 Bangladesh CS (DHS) 16099 Maternal health care Serious
Yaya et al. [75] 2019 34 countries in sub-Saharan Africa CS (DHS) 60215 Number of timing of births; unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, and pregnancy termination; contraceptive use Serious
Yimer et al. [76] 2016 Ethiopia CS 434 Nutritional status Serious
Yount et al. [77] 2016 Bangladesh Cohort 3902 Intimate partner violence Serious
Yusuf et al. [78] 2018 Nigeria CS (DHS) 5277 Nutritional status Serious
  1. Abbreviation: CS cross-sectional
  2. aAssessment differs depending on the outcome being assessed