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Table 6 Neighborhood environment scores by census indicators before and after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics of the participants

From: Profiling the variability and inequity in the residential environment in Cyprus according to citizens’ ratings: a cross-sectional internet-based “Place Standard” survey

Census variables Classification of postcodes according to quartile levels of census indicators Built environment score (6 items) Physical environment score (3 items) Social environment score (2 items) Service environment score (3 items) Total Place Standard score (14 items)
Area-level variables before and after adjusting for individual-level variables† ‡ Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
% pre-1980 construction Q1 – Lowest 41.3 (18.6)     38.5 (17.4)
Q2 39.0 (19.1)     37.3 (16.6)
Q3 36.0 (19.7)     37.2 (18.9)
Q4—Highest 32.6 (20.4)     34.4 (18.7)
p-value 0.007     0.34
Unadjusted – Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -2.6 (-4.2, -1.0); p = 0.001     -1.2 (-2.7, 0.2); p = 0.09
Adjusted—Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -1.8 (-3.4, -0.2); p = 0.03     -1.1 (-2.6, 0.3); p = 0.12
% apartment blocks-mixed used Q1 – Lowest 43.7 (22.9) 34.6 (25.5)   32.2 (21.4)  
Q2 35.8 (19.5) 29.8 (24.1)   36.0 (19.4)  
Q3 38.0 (18.2) 36.3 (24.6)   38.6 (19.5)  
Q4—Highest 31.7 (15.5) 40.3 (25.7)   38.3 (18.8)  
p-value  < 0.001 0.02   0.06  
Unadjusted – Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -3.2 (-4.8, -1.6); p < 0.001 2.4 (0.4, 4.5); p = 0.02   2.0 (0.4, 3.6); p = 0.02  
Adjusted—Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -2.9 (-4.6, -1.2); p < 0.001 2.2 (0.2, 4.2) p = 0.03   2.0 (0.4, 3.6); p = 0.01  
% single-parent households Q1 – Lowest 40.6 (20.1) 39.4 (26.9)    38.9 (17.9)
Q2 41.2 (19.4) 33.4 (22.9)    38.6 (16.6)
Q3 34.2 (19.2) 36.9 (27.4)    35.1 (18.8)
Q4—Highest 32.9 (18.8) 32.2 (24.2)    33.9 (16.9)
p-value 0.001 0.11    0.08
Unadjusted – Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -2.7 (-4.3, -1.1); p = 0.001 -1.8 (-3.9, 0.2); p = 0.08    -1.8 (-3.2, -0.3); p = 0.02
Adjusted—Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -2.3 (-3.8, -0.7); p = 0.005 -1.9 (-4.0, -0.1); p = 0.06    -1.7 (-3.1, -0.2); p = 0.02
% non-Cypriot population Q1 – Lowest 40.2 (19.7) 31.4 (23.2)    
Q2 40.1 (20.0) 36.5 (27.2)    
Q3 36.3 (21.4) 35.0 (24.8)    
Q4—Highest 33.7 (17.7) 39.1 (26.4)    
p-value 0.03 0.13    
Unadjusted – Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -2.3 (-3.9, -0.7); p = 0.005 2.2 (0.1, 4.2); p = 0.04    
Adjusted—Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -1.7 (-3.3, -0.0); p = 0.05 2.0 (-0.1, 4.0); p = 0.06    
% population aged 65 or over Q1 – Lowest 41.7 (18.4)     
Q2 36.5 (19.0)     
Q3 33.8 (21.1)     
Q4—Highest 36.9 (19.4)     
p-value 0.02     
Unadjusted – Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -1.7 (-3.3, -0.1); p = 0.04     
Adjusted—Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -0.81 (-2.4, 0.8); p = 0.32     
Urban–rural place of residence Urban (Ν = 379) 35.8 (19.8)   36.3 (26.2) 37.1 (19.5)  
Rural (Ν = 70) 45.1 (22.7)   43.5 (27.6) 30.8 (21.4)  
p-value  < 0.001   0.04 0.02  
Unadjusted – Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -8.7 (-13.7, -3.7); p = 0.001   -6.3 (-13.1, -0.4); p = 0.07 6.6 (1.5, 11.6);
p = 0.01
 
Adjusted—Difference per quartile (95% CI); p-value -7.6 (-12.6, 2.7); p = 0.003   -6.4 (-13.1, 0.4); p = 0.06 6.9 (0.3, 7.8);
p = 0.007