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Table 3 Substance use and treatment characteristics of study sample (N = 46)

From: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) experiences and release plans among federally incarcerated individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) in Ontario, Canada: a mixed-methods study

Characteristic % (n)
Severity of substance use at admissionb
 Moderate/Severed 84% (36 of 43)
History of polysubstance useb 57% (26)
History of injection drug use 50% (23)
 Lifetimeb 50% (23)
 30 days prior to incarceration 37% (17)
Non-OAT substance use services used (30 days prior to incarceration)a
 Harm reduction services 46% (21)
 Outpatient treatment 17% (8)
 Support groups 15% (7)
 Inpatient treatment 9% (4)
Engagement in OAT (30 days prior to incarceration) 44% (20)
Type(s) of OAT (30 days prior to incarceration)ac
 Methadone 95% (19 of 20)
 Buprenorphine-naloxone 5% (1 of 20)
 Both Methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone 10% (2 of 20)
 Hydromorphone 5% (1 of 20)
Entered CSC on OAT 39% (18)
Type(s) of OAT during CSC incarcerationb
 Methadone 67% (31)
 Buprenorphine-naloxone 33% (15)
  1. aResponses not mutually exclusive
  2. bData acquired from CSC
  3. cResponses out of n = 20 participants who indicated they had been engaged in OAT 30 days prior
  4. dResponses out of n = 43 participants who had this data; Severity of substance use is determined using CASA. Harm reduction category includes use of either needle exchange, safer use kits, naloxone kits, etc.; Outpatient treatment category includes either group therapy, one-on-one therapy/counseling, relapse prevention; Inpatient treatment category includes residential treatment, rehabilitation, detoxification/withdrawal management; Support groups include self-help or mutual aid groups such as alcoholics anonymous, narcotics anonymous, etc.